Antoine Augustin Renouard

Antoine Augustin Renouard, a French bibliographer, born in Paris, Sept. 21, 1765, died at St. Valery, Dec. 15, 1853. He was originally a manufacturer of gases, but in 1797 became a bookseller and publisher in Paris, retiring in 1824. His principal works are: Annales de l'imprimerie des Alde (2 vols., 1803), which passed through several editions; Annales de l'imprimerie des Estienne (1837-'8; 2d ed., 1843); and valuable annotated catalogues.

Antoine Charma

Antoine Charma, a French philosopher, born at La Charite, department of Nievre, Jan. 15, 1801, died in Caen, Aug. 5, 1869. At the recommendation of his friend Victor Cousin, he was appointed about 1831 to the chair of philosophy at the faculty of Caen, which, despite charges of infidelity brought against him by Montalembert, he held till his death. His principal works are: Essai sur les bases et les developpements de la moralite humaine (1834); Legons de pthilosophie sociale et de logique (2 vols., 1838-'40); Essai sur la pliilosopliie orientale (1842); and Du Sommeil (1851).

Antoine Coysevox

Antoine Coysevox, a French sculptor, of Spanish origin, born in Lyons in 1640, died in Paris, Oct. 10,1720. He produced severalfine statues of Louis XIV., a statue of Conde, and of other eminent persons. Among his best works are the tombs of Mazarin and Colbert, the monument of Lebrun, and two statues of a flute player and Flora.

Antoine De La Mothe Cadillac

Antoine De La Mothe Cadillac, a French explorer, born in Gascony, died about 1719. After being a captain in the marine service he came to Acadia (now Nova Scotia), and in 1691 obtained a grant of Mount Desert island, Maine. He commanded at Michilimackinac from 1691 to 1697, founded Detroit in 1701, and commanded there for several years, often involved in troubles caused by his rashness and prejudices. He was governor of Louisiana from 1712 to 1717, and endeavored to work silver mines, and to open trade with Mexico, but failed. He established forts among the Alibamons and Nachitoches, and by his unwise conduct created the first troubles with the Natchez. In 1787 his descendants recovered some of his lands in Maine.

Antoine Elisabeth Cleophas Dareste De La Chavame

Antoine Elisabeth Cleophas Dareste De La Chavame, a French author, born in Paris, Oct. 25, 1820. He early taught history in various places, and since 1851 has been professor, and latterly dean of the faculty of Lyons. His principal works are: Histoire de l'administration en France depuis Philippe Auguste (2 vols., 1848); Histoire des classes agricoles en France depuis Saint Louis jusqu'a Louis XVI. (1853); and Histoire de France depuis ses origines jusqu'd nos jours (8 vols., 1865-'73).

Antoine Etex

Antoine Etex, a French sculptor, painter, and architect, born in Paris, March 20, 1808. He studied under Ingres, and after the production in 1829 of his "Hyacinth killed by Apollo," he spent some time in Italy and visited other countries at the expense of government. Returning to Paris, he exhibited in 1833 a colossal group of "Cain," which procured him orders from the government, and he has since produced many statues and architectural designs. He also excels as a painter and draughtsman. In 1864 he exhibited paintings entitled "The Ancient Slave" and "The Modern Slave." He has published Essai sur le beau (Paris, 1851), and Cours elementaire de dessin (3d ed., 1859).