Aspen

See Poplar.

Aspern And Essling

Aspern And Essling, two villages lying about a league apart, on the N. side of the Danube, a short distance below Vienna, which were the principal strategic points in a desperate battle to which they have given a name, fought May 21 and 22, 1809, between Napoleon's army and the Austrians under the archduke Charles. The Austrians attacked while the two bodies of the French force were separated by the river, inflicting a severe defeat, and finally compelling Napoleon to retreat to the island of Lobau. Massena, who secured the retreat by the defence of Essling, received from it his title of duke of Essling. The Austrian loss was 4,000 killed and 16,000 wounded; Napoleon's loss 8,000 killed and 30,000 wounded. Marshal Lannes was among the mortally wounded. The success of the Austrians was more than counterbalanced soon after by their defeat at Wagram (July 5, 6).

Asphaltites Lacus

See Dead Sea.

Aspromonte

Aspromonte, a mountain in the S. W. corner of Italy, near Reggio, celebrated for the battle of Aug. 28, 1862, between the Italian troops under Pallavicini and the volunteers of Garibaldi. The latter, who had crossed over from Sicily to march on Rome, against the warnings of the royal government, was defeated, wounded in the foot, and taken prisoner with the larger portion of his men.

Aspropotamo

Aspropotamo. See Achelous.

Assab, Or Saba

Assab, Or Saba, a bay in the Red sea, on the coast of Africa, 40 m. N. W. of the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, in lat. 12° 55' N, lon. 42° 45' E., 16 m. long and 5 m. wide. It is bordered on the W. by high table land, and in its front are the coral islands of Darmabah and Darmahie, the last forming near Cape Lu-ma a safe harbor for small craft. The neighboring inhabitants are the Danakil, who are virtually governed by their own sultan, though the khedive of Egypt claims to be their legitimate ruler. The bay of Assab was purchased in 1869 by an Italian steamboat company as a coaling station on the voyage from Italy to Egypt through the Suez canal to India.

Assaie, Or Assyc

Assaie, Or Assyc, a village of Hindostan, in the Nizam's dominions, 43 m. N. E. of Aurung-abad, near which in September, 1803, the duke of Wellington (then Gen. Wellesley), with 2,000 British troops and 2,500 sepoys, defeated the much more numerous combined force of Scindia and the rajah of Nagpoor.

Assen

Assen, a town of the Netherlands, capital of the province of Drenthe, 14 m. S. of Gronin-gen, on the Horn-Diep, which is connected by means of a canal with the Zuyder-Zee; pop. in 1867, 6,443. Near the town are celebrated giants' graves.

Asser, Or Asserius Menevcnsis

Asser, Or Asserius Menevcnsis, a monk of St. David's or Menevia, in Wales, died about 910. At the request of Alfred the Great he left his monastery for a part of each year to visit the court, where he read Latin with the king and corrected his translations. Alfred gave him many ecclesiastical preferments. Some authorities say he became bishop of Sherborne. Asser's great work is his "Life of Alfred," in Latin. The earliest edition is that of Archbishop Parker, at the end of Walsingham's "History" (1574). The best edition is that of Wise (Oxford, 1722), entitled Annales Rerum Gestarum AEIfredi Magni. This is our chief authority for the events of Alfred's public and private life from his birth to 889, and conveys much incidental intelligence about the laws, manners, and general civilization of Wessex. Thomas Wright, in the Biographia Britannica Literaria, maintains that this life was written at a later date, and Asser's name affixed to it.