Austro-Humarim Monarchy

Austro-Humarim Monarchy. See Austria.


Autauga, a central county of Alabama, bounded S. by the Alabama river; area, about 650 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 11,623, of whom 7,292 were colored. The Selma, Rome, and Dalton, and South and North Alabama railroads pass through the county. The surface is uneven and the soil fertile. In 1870 the county produced 191,158 bushels of Indian corn, 36,660 of sweet potatoes, and 7,965 bales of cotton. There were two cotton factories and a cotton gin factory, producing articles to the value of $681,733. Capital, Kingston.


Autheletics, a Latin translation of the Novellae of Justinian, so called by early writers from its being a literal translation of the original. The term was afterward applied to extracts of decisions from the Novellae by which previous decisions or definitions contained in the Pandects or the Codex were modified or set aside. These extracts were made by doctors of the law and inserted in the Corpus Juris, but had no authority. The German emperors Frederick II. and III. issued in their names authentics, and ordered the civilians of Bologna to intercalate them in the code of Justinian. These last had a practical authority.

Auto Da Fe

Auto Da Fe (Port., act of faith; Span., auto de fe), a public day held by the inquisition for the punishment of heretics and the absolution of the innocent accused. The term is also applied to the sentence of the inquisition read to the condemned just before execution, and to the session of the court of inquisition. (See Inquisition).

Autoine Chazal

Autoine Chazal, a French painter and designer, born in Paris in 1793, died there in 1854. He devoted himself especially to the painting of flowers and fruit, and designed and engraved many plates for works on natural history, anatomy, etc.; among which are the Traite des accouchements by Maygrier, the Ovologie humaine by Velpeau, the Embryo-genie comparee by Coste, the Anatomie pa-thologique by Cruveilher, and the Flore des Canaries by Webb. He made also 40 studies of medicinal plants in aquarelle for the medical school in Lexington, Kentucky. In 1835 he was named professor of design in the museum of natural history in Paris. He painted for the museum many of the wild animals after nature, and some genre pictures and portraits, among the latter one of Washington. - His son, Charles Camille, born in Paris in 1826, is also a painter of some note.

Autoine Francois Habeneck

Autoine Francois Habeneck, a French musician, of German parentage, born in Mezieres, June 1, 1781, died in Paris in February, 1849. His father, a musician of a French regiment, gave him lessons on the violin, of which instrument he became a distinguished master under the tuition of Baillot. The empress Josephine gave him a pension of 1,200 francs, and he became adjunct and successor of Kreutzer as solo player, and from 1806 to 1815 he presided over the orchestra at the conservatoire; and he was the first to produce there the music of Beethoven, which through his perseverance and enthusiasm gradually acquired universal popularity. From 1821 to 1824 he was director of the opera; and he was leader of the orchestra till 1846, and in this capacity and as a violinist he was without a rival, though he composed little. His younger brothers Corentin and Joseph became also known as excellent violinists.