Auxerre, a city of France, capital of the department of Yonne, on the left bank of the river Yonne, 90 m. S. E. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 15,497. Its wines are much esteemed. Its manufactures are calicoes, cloths, serges, druggets, earthenware, violin strings, etc. It has a college, a secondary ecclesiastical school, a museum of antiquities, a public library of about 25,000 volumes, a cathedral with a tine flamboyant Gothic facade, and the quaint church of St. Germain, with curious crypts, in which lie buried the mediaeval counts of Aux-erre and its vicinity (Auxerrois).


Auxomve, a fortified town of France, in the department of Cote d'Or, on the left bank of the Saone, 17 m. S. E. of Dijon; pop. in 1866, 5,911. It has an arsenal and barracks, with manufactures of woollen cloth and nails.


Avallon, a town of France, in the department of Yonne, on the Cousin, 26 m. S. E. of Auxerre; pop. in 1866, 6,070. It is surrounded by a country renowned for fertility and beauty. It has considerable trade in wine, leather, and horns, and manufactures of wool.


Avaris, a stronghold of the Hyksos in Lower Egypt. See Egypt, vol. vi., p. 460.

Ave Maria

Ave Maria, a short prayer much used in the Roman and Greek Catholic churches. The first clause is the salutation of St. Elizabeth to the Blessed Virgin, with the names "Maria" and "Jesus" added. The second clause is an acclamation employed by the fathers of the council of Ephesus and the people generally, to express their joy at the decision of the question raised by Nestorius whether Mary is truly the mother of God. It is usually joined with the Pater Noster.


Avebiry, a village in Wiltshire, England, 5 m. W. of Marlborough, notable as the site of the remains of the largest Druidical temple in Europe. In an open plain, free from trees, 650 blocks of stone, varying from 5 to 20 ft. above the ground, and 3 to 12 in breadth and thickness, were brought together. One hundred of these were set on end around an area 1,400 ft. in diameter; and these were enclosed by a ditch and mound with two breaks for openings. The area within the bank is over 28 acres. From the arrangements it has been conjectured that there were within this great circle two smaller circular temples, besides two avenues of great stones leading to the entrances from a distance of more than a mile. The remains have been almost entirely destroyed of late years, all that was capable of removal having been gradually carried away.


Aveiro, a seaport town of Portugal, in the province of Beira, S. of the mouth of the Vouga, on a bay called the Barra de Aveiro, 37 m. S. of Oporto; pop. in 1863, 6,557. It is an episcopal see, and has an extensive trade in sea salt. In the 16th century it was a commercial place of great importance.


Avellino, a fortified town of S. Italy, capital of the province of Principato Ulteriore, 28 m. E. of Maples; pop. about 15,000. It has a cathedral, several fine public buildings, and a public granary. It is celebrated for its filberts, which are largely produced in the vicinity, and are hence called in Latin nuces Axeliance, and in French avelincs. There is also a large trade in chestnuts and grain, and manufactures of hats and cloth. At the village of Atripalda, 2 m. distant, are the remains of the ancient town of Abellinum, which being destroyed in the wars between the Greeks and Lombards, the inhabitants settled on the present site. The town has suffered much from earthquakes.