Babadagh, a fortified town of European Turkey, capital of the Dobrudja, or N. E. Bulgaria, in the eyalet and 96 m. N. E. of the city of Silistria, near Lake Rassein, which is connected with the mouths of the Danube and the Black sea; pop. about 10,000. Near the entrance of the lake is the seaport of Kara Ir-man, through which Babadagh carries on an extensive trade. The town lies in an unhealthy situation between mountains and swamps. It is called after Baba the saint, whose adjoining tomb attracts Moslem pilgrims. It contains five mosques, a college, and an aqueduct, and was of great strategical importance in the Turko-Eussian conflicts of the 18th century and in the Crimean war, when the forts were ineffectually bombarded by the Russians (March 27, 1854).
Baccarat, a town of France, in the department of Meurthe, 16 m. by railway S. E. of Luneville; pop. in 1866, 4,763. It is picturesquely situated at the foot of a steep mountain on the river Meurthe, and is celebrated for its flint-glass manufactory, which employs 1,100 hands, and produces over 3,000,000 francs' worth annually. The manufacture was greatly improved and cheapened by the invention of a bellows for shaping the glass by one of its workmen, Ismael Robinet, about 1823.
Bacchiglione, a river of northern Italy, in Venetia, about 90 m. long, which rises in the Alps, N. W. of Vicenza, flows past that city and Padua, and empties into the lagoon of Venice near Chioggia. Large boats ascend it to Vicenza.
Bacchylides, a Greek poet, born at Iulis in the island of Ceos about 512 B. C.; the period of his death is uncertain. He was a nephew of Simonides and a contemporary of Pindar, and passed most of his life at the court of Hiero of Syracuse. Fragments of his works were published by Neue of Berlin in 1822. They are also found in Bergk's Poetae Lyrici Grceci (2d ed., Leipsic, 1853). The most recent edition is by Hartung, with a German version (in the Griechische Lyriker, 6 vols., 1857).
Baccio Bella Porta. See Bartolommeo.
Backhuysen, Or Bakhuysen, Ludolf, a Dutch marine painter, born at Emden in 1631, died in Amsterdam in 1709. While a merchant's clerk in Amsterdam his fondness for shipping led him frequently to the port, where he made admirable drawings. He went out to sea during storms, and on landing immediately transferred his impressions to canvas. The czar Peter frequently visited Backhuysen's studio, and endeavored to make drawings of vessels which the artist had designed. His most celebrated sea picture, with a multitude of vessels, and a view of Amsterdam in the distance, is in the Louvre, together with seven other pictures by him. - His grandson, of the same name, a merchant and soldier, and finally a painter of horses and battles, born Aug. 29, 1717, died in Rotterdam, April 16, 1782.
Bacolor, a town of the Philippines, capital of the province of Pampanga in the island of Luzon, about 38 m. N. W. of Manila, near the Pampanga river; pop. about 8,500. During the British occupation of Manila (1762-'4) it was the capital of the Philippine Islands.