Bajazid, Or Bayazid, a fortified town of Turkish Armenia, 150 m. E. S. E. of Erze-rum, S. W. of Mount Ararat; pop. variously estimated at from 5,000 to 15,000, mostly Kurds. It lies around a hill crowned by a citadel, and has a palace, arsenal, mosque, and monastery. The town, which is the capital of a sanjak, has declined since the Russian conquest of Georgia.
Bakalahari, the oldest of the African Be-chuana tribes, occupying the great Kalahari desert, between the Orange river, lat. 29° S., and Lake Ngami, and between lon. 24° and the Great Fish river. They are found roaming with the Bushmen, but retain the characteristics of the Bechuana tribes, and exhibit an inclination to industrial pursuits and settled life. They cultivate the thin soil, rear goats, and carry on a small traffic in furs.
Bakhtegan, a lake of Persia, in the province of Fare, in lat. 29° 30' N., and between lon. 53° 80' and 54° 30' E.; length E. and W. upward of 00 m.; breadth 8 m. It dries up in summer, leaving immense quantities of salt.
Bakhtishwa, the name of a Christian Nes-torian family, which during the 8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th centuries gave six famous physicians to the court of Bagdad. Caliph Al-Hadi, after having been restored to health by the skill of Ben Ginrgis Bakhtishwa in 786, proposed that all the physicians who had unsuccessfully practised upon him should be put to death; but Bakhtishwa saved the lives of his colleagues by administering poison to the caliph. At the beginning of the 9th century Giabril ben Giur-gis hen Bakhtishwa, after helping Haroun al-Kashid over an apoplectic fit, was sentenced to death because the caliph had a relapse. His life was only saved by the death of the caliph. The most learned of the Bakhtishwas was Abu Sa, who flourished about the middle of the 10th century. He is the reputed author of a medical work in 50 chapters, dedicated to Caliph Motaki, and entitled the "Garden of Medicine."
Bakony, Or Forest Of Bakony, a mountain range in Hungary, S. of the Danube, between the Raab and Lake Balaton, separating the great and little Hungarian plains. Its average height is about 2,000 ft. It is crowned with dense forests, and has quarries of very fine marble. Immense herds of swine are fed in the forest, and the keepers figure as robbers in Hungarian literature.
Balalaika, a musical instrument with two or three strings, played with the fingers like the guitar, very popular in Russia for accompaniments, and found in almost all the cottages of the peasantry. Russian ballads have been collected, under the title of this national instrument, in French (1837) and in German (1863).
Balanguni, Or Bangingee, an islet of the Malay archipelago, in the Sulu group, claimed by Spain as part of the province of Zamboangan in the Philippine island of Mindanao, in lat. 5° 57' 30" N., lon. 121° 39' E. It is about 3 m. long and 1 broad, and gives its name to the most daring Malay pirates. In 1848 it was captured by the Spaniards, who had 11 officers and 170 men killed and wounded; 450 of the pirates were killed, refusing to take quarter. The forts and houses of the island were levelled to the ground, and to make it uninhabitable about 8,000 cocoa palms were cut down.