Baldwin (Fr. Baudouin or Balduin), the name of several counts of Flanders. - Baldwin I., Burnamed Iron-Arm, was a son-in-law of Charles the Bald, king of France, and died in 879. - Baldwin II., the Bald, son of the preceding, died in 918. He waged war against the kings of France, Eudes and Charles the Simple - Baldwin IV., the Bearded, died in 1036. He increased his family domain by several conquests, especially that of Valenciennes, and received from the emperor Henry II. the island of Walcheren. - Baldwin V., of Lille, the Debon-naire, son of the preceding and son-in-law of King Robert of France, died in 1067. He conquered Hainault, was regent of France during the minority of his nephew Philip L, and helped William of Normandy, his son-in-law, in the conquest of England. - Baldwin VIII. died in 1195. He was an enemy of Philip Augustus, but became reconciled and swore allegiance to him in 1192. - Baldwin IX., son of the preceding. See Baldwin I. of Constantinople.
Balfrush, Or Balfurush, a town of Persia, in the province of Mazanderan, situated on the river Bahbul, here crossed by a bridge of 9 arches, about 12 m. from the southern shore of the Caspian sea, and about 100 m. N. E. of Teheran; pop. about 60,000. It is situated in a swampy but fertile country, in the midst of tall trees. It formerly had an extensive trade with Russia, and many fine bazaars and colleges, but has much declined owing to the ravages of the plague and the cholera, and the unhealthy climate.
Baliol. See Balliol.
Balize, Or Belize, a town of British Honduras, Central America, at the mouth of the river of the same name, in lat. 17° 29' N., Ion. 88° 8' W.; pop. about 12,000, many of whom are negroes. It is built along a single street running parallel with the seashore; from this extend only a few inconsiderable side streets, almost every house in the town facing the main thoroughfare. The principal buildings are the market (an iron structure), the government savings bank, a hospital and an insane asylum, and several churches. There are also numerous schools. The trade of Balize is considerable; cochineal and mahogany are the leading articles of export. Balize was first settled by the English about 1670; and after numerous contests with the Spaniards, who claimed possession of the site, it was finally confirmed to the British by the treaty of 1783. It is the seat of the legislature of British Honduras.
Balkhash Balkash, or Tenglz, a lake of S. W. Siberia, between lat. 44° and 47° N., and Ion. 74° and 79° E.; length from N. E. to S. W., 250 m.; greatest breadth, 70 m.; area about 8,000 sq. m. It has no visible outlet. It is enclosed by mountains on the E. and W. On the S. and S. W. it receives the Hi, whose valley was a century ago the principal domain of the Dzun-garis. They were nearly annihilated by the Chinese, who introduced various settlers for the cultivation of the soil. The lake is frozen during winter. It contains only small fish. The Russian government has attempted to navigate part of the Hi since 1852.