Baroness Nairne

See Olipiiant, Carolina.

Baroness Vigier Sophie Cruvelli

Baroness Vigier Sophie Cruvelli, a German vocalist, born in Bielefeld, Prussia, Aug. 29, 1824. Her family name was Cruwell, which she Italianized into Cruvelli. Her musical education was acquired in Paris, but she made her debut upon the German stage, to which her reputation was confined for several years. She afterward sang in Milan, Venice, and other Italian cities. In 1852 she made her first appearance in London at the Queen's theatre, and was successful. Her voice, a soprano of great strength and purity, her dramatic powers, youth, beauty, and commanding person, created an extraordinary enthusiasm, and both in London and in Paris, which she visited the same year, she became perhaps the most popular singer of the day. In 1856 she was married to the baron Vigier, and abandoned the stage. Ahmed Pasha, son of Mehemet Ali, left her a fortune of 1,000,000 francs, and an almost equal sum in diamonds.


Baronet, an English title of honor. The baronet is the next degree in point of precedence below a baron. The baron is a peer of the realm, a hereditary legislator; the baronet is a commoner. The dignity dates from James I., and according to Blackstone was instituted by that monarch in order to raise a competent sum for the reduction of the province of Ulster in Ireland, for which reason all baronets have the arms of Ulster superadded to their family coat. The candidates for the honor were required to be of gentle blood, and of adequate means to support the dignity; and it was promised that the number should not exceed 200, and that lapse's by death should not be filled up. This promise, however, was soon abandoned. For similar reasons an order of baronets of Nova Scotia was created by Charles I. (See Alexander, William).

Barons Northbroor

See Baking.


Barony, in England, the manorial right or lordship of a baron, for which the courts baron were formerly held. In Ireland the term designates a particular territorial division existing from very ancient times, and corresponding nearly to the English hundred.

Barozzio Da Vignola

Barozzio Da Vignola. See Vignola.


Barr, a town of Germany, in Alsace, at the foot of the Vosges mountains, and at the entrance into the picturesque Ulric valley, 18 m. S. W. of Strasburg; pop. in 1871, 5,651. It has manufactories of soap and of woollen, cotton, china, pottery, and crystal ware; it also has a brisk trade in wine, iron, wood, and cattle. The place is mentioned in the 8th century. In 1592 it was totally destroyed by the troops of the cardinal of Lorraine. Above the town rises Mount Odilia (2,521 ft.), on which St. Odilia, the daughter of Duke Attic of Alsace, established a celebrated monastery, which was sold during the French revolution.

Barr, Or Barra

Barr, Or Barra, a small kingdom of W. Africa, near the mouth of the Gambia, extending along the N. bank of the river about 50 m.; pop. estimated at 200,000. This kingdom was founded by a Man-dingo warrior from the interior, who overran the country, and afterward kept his hold of it by means of arms procured from Europeans in exchange for slaves. The free Mandingoes constitute only a quarter of the population, and are described as a well made, industrious, and shrewd race, all zealous Mohammedans. The remainder of the population are in slavery.