Bernard Cornells Koekkoek, a Dutch landscape painter, born in Middelburg, Oct. 11, 1803, died in Cleves, April 5, 1862. He was the son of the celebrated marine painter Johannes Herman Koekkoek. At the great exposition in Paris in 1855 he received a medal of the first class. For many years previous to his death he resided in Cleves, where he established a school of design. - His brothers Mari-anus, Adrian, and Herman also enjoy a high reputation as painters.
Bernard De Montfaucon, a French scholar, born at Soulage, Languedoc, Jan. 13,1655, died in Paris, Dec. 21, 1741. He belonged to a noble family, and after completing his education at the college of Limoux, he served in two campaigns in Germany under Turenne, and in 1675 entered a Benedictine convent at Toulouse. Afterward he went to Paris, where he became a member of the congregation of St. Maur, and acquired a high reputation for his scholarly attainments. In 1719 he was made a member of the academy of inscriptions. His most important works are: Palceographia Graeca, she de Ortu et Progressu Literarum Grcecarum (fob, Paris, 1708); Vantiquite ex-pliquee et representee en figures (in French and Latin, 10 vols, fob, 1719; supplement, 5 vols, fob, 1724); and Les monuments de la monarchie francaise (in French and Latin, 5 vols, fob, 1729-33). He also published valuable editions of the works of several of the Greek fathers.
Bernard Of Treviso, an Italian alchemist, born at Padua in 1406, died in 1490. He assumed the title of count of the March of Tre-viso, devoted his life and a large fortune to experiments and travels in search of the philosopher's stone, and after much observation and study arrived at the principle, "To make gold, gold is needed." In one of his many works he describes the trials and disappointments of an alchemist's life; and in his treatise De Mi-raculo Chemico he develops a curious theory in regard to the origin of heat.
Bernardin De St. Pierre. See Saint Pierre.
Bernardino Baldi, an Italian scholar, born in Urbino, June 6, 1553, died there, Oct. 12, 1617. He was a fellow student with Tasso, and became an intimate friend of St. Charles Bor-romeo, and was in possession of the rich abbey of Guastalla from 1586 to 1611. He was familiar with 16 languages, and the author of about 100 miscellaneous works on mathematics, geography, history, etc, and commentaries and translations. His sonnet? and his didactic poem in blank verse, La Nautica (1590; French version in prose, Paris, 1840), are among the finest productions of his day. He prepared a translation of the Chaldaic Targum of Onke-los, Arabic and Persian grammars, and Turkish, Hungarian, and Arabic dictionaries.
Bernardino Rebolledo, count de, a Spanish author, born in Leon in 1597, died in Madrid in 1676. He served in Italy and against the Turks, took part in the thirty years' war, was created by Ferdinand II. a count of the German empire, and received the government of the Lower Palatinate. He was several years ambassador to Denmark, and from 1662 till his death was president of the board of war at Madrid. He wrote Ocios ("Leisure Hours," Antwerp, 1650); Selvas militares y politicas, poems on the arts of war and civil government (Copenhagen, 1652); Selvas dánicas (4to, 1665), a compendium in verse of the history and geography of Denmark; and some minor writings. The best edition of his works is that of Madrid (4 vols. 8vo, 1778).