Biarritz, a bathing place of France, in the department of Basses-Pyrenees, on the bay of Biscay, 5 m. W. S. W. of Bayonne; pop. in 1866, 3,652. The air here is more bracing than at Pau. The chief public bath houses are in a small bay called Port Vieux and on the Cote de Moulin. The place contains curious grottoes. It flourished especially during the periodical residence there of Napoleon III. and Eugenie, 1855-'70. The villa Eugenie, as the very plain imperial residence was called, is situated on an elevation close to the sea.
Villa Eugenie, Biarritz.
Biberach, a town of Wurtemberg, in the circle of Donau, at the confluence of the Bibe-rach with the Riss, a tributary of the Danube 22 m. S. S. W. of Ulm; pop. in 1871, 7,09l. It contains four churches, a hospital, and a college, and has tanneries, breweries, manufactories of linen, woollen, and paper, and an active trade in grain. Till 1802 Biberach was a free imperial city. It then came under the government of Baden, but was ceded to Wtirtemburg in 1806. On May 9, 1800, the French general Moreau won here a great victory over the Austrian general Kray. Wieland was born in Biberach.
See Lacroix, Paul.
Biche De Mar. See Sea Cucumber.
Bideford, a seaport town of Devonshire, England, on both sides of the Torridge, which is here crossed by a bridge of 24 arches and 677 ft. long, 35 m. N. W. of Exeter; pop. in 1871, 6,953. The town has a large mediaeval church with interesting monuments, a fine quay 1,200 ft. long, and manufactures of ropes, sails, earthenware, and leather. It is healthful, and is a place of summer resort.
Biel. See Bienne.
Bielefeld, a town of Prussia, in the West-phalian district of Minden, divided by the small river Dutter into an old and new town, 26 m. S. W. of Minden; pop. in 1871, 21,803. It is a celebrated centre of the flax and linen trade, the renowned Ravensburg flax manufactory having nearly 30,000 looms, including about 5,000 in the branch establishment at Wolfen-buttel. The bleacheries are after the Irish and Belgian systems, and produce annually over 150,000 pieces of linen and 50,000 cwt. of yarn. The ready-made linen factories here employed in 1870 over 2,000 women. There are also manufactories of silk, velvet, glass, machines, and other articles. Bielefeld be-came a Hanse town in 1270, and in the 17th century it passed with the county of Ravens-berg into the possession of the house of Brandenburg. The neighboring castle of Sparren-burg on the Sparren mountain, formerly a bone of contention in times of war, is at present used as a prison.
Bielev, a town of Russia, in the government of Tula, situated on the left bank of the Oka, about 155 m. S. S. W. of Moscow; pop. in 1867, 8,123. It has considerable trade, the chief articles of which are grain, hemp, and linseed oil. Two great fairs are annually held. The town has several tallow, oil, and rope factories, a sugar factory, 19 churches, and 3 monasteries. On May 16, 1826, the empress Elizabeth, widow of Alexander L, died here, and a monument to her memory has been erected. The house in which she died has been converted into a widows1 home.