Biarritz

Biarritz, a bathing place of France, in the department of Basses-Pyrenees, on the bay of Biscay, 5 m. W. S. W. of Bayonne; pop. in 1866, 3,652. The air here is more bracing than at Pau. The chief public bath houses are in a small bay called Port Vieux and on the Cote de Moulin. The place contains curious grottoes. It flourished especially during the periodical residence there of Napoleon III. and Eugenie, 1855-'70. The villa Eugenie, as the very plain imperial residence was called, is situated on an elevation close to the sea.

Villa Eugenie, Biarritz.

Villa Eugenie, Biarritz.

Biberach

Biberach, a town of Wurtemberg, in the circle of Donau, at the confluence of the Bibe-rach with the Riss, a tributary of the Danube 22 m. S. S. W. of Ulm; pop. in 1871, 7,09l. It contains four churches, a hospital, and a college, and has tanneries, breweries, manufactories of linen, woollen, and paper, and an active trade in grain. Till 1802 Biberach was a free imperial city. It then came under the government of Baden, but was ceded to Wtirtemburg in 1806. On May 9, 1800, the French general Moreau won here a great victory over the Austrian general Kray. Wieland was born in Biberach.

Bibliophile Jacob

See Lacroix, Paul.

Bibracte

See Autun.

Biche De Mar

Biche De Mar. See Sea Cucumber.

Bideford

Bideford, a seaport town of Devonshire, England, on both sides of the Torridge, which is here crossed by a bridge of 24 arches and 677 ft. long, 35 m. N. W. of Exeter; pop. in 1871, 6,953. The town has a large mediaeval church with interesting monuments, a fine quay 1,200 ft. long, and manufactures of ropes, sails, earthenware, and leather. It is healthful, and is a place of summer resort.

Biel

Biel. See Bienne.

Bielefeld

Bielefeld, a town of Prussia, in the West-phalian district of Minden, divided by the small river Dutter into an old and new town, 26 m. S. W. of Minden; pop. in 1871, 21,803. It is a celebrated centre of the flax and linen trade, the renowned Ravensburg flax manufactory having nearly 30,000 looms, including about 5,000 in the branch establishment at Wolfen-buttel. The bleacheries are after the Irish and Belgian systems, and produce annually over 150,000 pieces of linen and 50,000 cwt. of yarn. The ready-made linen factories here employed in 1870 over 2,000 women. There are also manufactories of silk, velvet, glass, machines, and other articles. Bielefeld be-came a Hanse town in 1270, and in the 17th century it passed with the county of Ravens-berg into the possession of the house of Brandenburg. The neighboring castle of Sparren-burg on the Sparren mountain, formerly a bone of contention in times of war, is at present used as a prison.

Bielev

Bielev, a town of Russia, in the government of Tula, situated on the left bank of the Oka, about 155 m. S. S. W. of Moscow; pop. in 1867, 8,123. It has considerable trade, the chief articles of which are grain, hemp, and linseed oil. Two great fairs are annually held. The town has several tallow, oil, and rope factories, a sugar factory, 19 churches, and 3 monasteries. On May 16, 1826, the empress Elizabeth, widow of Alexander L, died here, and a monument to her memory has been erected. The house in which she died has been converted into a widows1 home.