Boccage, Or Bocagc, Manocl Maria Barbosa Do, a Portuguese poet of French descent, born at Setubal, Sept. 17, 1766, died in 1805 or 1806. He was expelled from the marines and banished to India for a sarcasm on the minister of the navy, and also driven from Macao for a similar offence against the governor general. A Goa merchant enabled him to return to Lisbon. In 1797 and 1798 he was arrested for sympathizing with French revolutionary ideas. He translated into Portuguese the Colomhiade of his relative Mme. du Boccage, Le Sage's Gil Bias, Delille's poems, several of Ovid's Metamorphoses, and other works. His poems, being melodious and characteristic of popular feeling, though without depth of thought, were imitated by several poets who were called, after his assumed name of Elmano, the Elmanistas, and were the forerunners of the present national school of Portuguese poetry. A complete edition of his poems was published after his death (5 vols., Lisbon, 1806-'14).
Boccherini. Luigi, an Italian composer, born at Lucca, Jan. 14, 1740, died in Madrid in 1806. He wrote 93 quintets for two violins, viola, and two violoncellos, in which he commonly assigned the principal part to the first violoncello. His Stabat Mater is his only church composition.
Bochnia, a town of Austria, in Galicia, on the Uswica, a tributary of the Vistula, 21 m. E. S. E. of Cracow; pop. in 1870, 7,480. The town is chiefly built of wood, and it has celebrated salt mines, adjoining those of Wieliczka. They yield annually about 300,000 quintals of different kinds of salt, and have been worked since the 13th century. In the vicinity of the town are extensive quarries of gypsum.
Bocholt, a town of Prussia, in the province of Westphalia, on the Aa, 44 m. W. S. W. of Munster; pop. in 1871, 6,125. It has a castle belonging to the prince of Salm-Salm, and in the vicinity is a large iron mine.
Bochum, a town of Prussia, capital of an extensive and densely populated circle, in the district of Arnsberg, province of Westphalia, 40 m. S. W. of Minister; pop. in 1871, 21,193. It is situated in a fertile region on the coal field of the lower Ruhr, and contains a school of trades and a chamber of commerce. Bochum is the Beat of the mineralogical administration of the county of Mark, and has important manufactories of cast iron, cast steel, and other articles. The production of coal and the trade in grain are considerable. The population has more than doubled since 1861, and is still rapidly increasing.
Bockelson, Or Boccold, Johann. See John of Leyden.
Bockenheim, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, about 1 m. N. W. of Frankfort, on the Main and Weser railway; pop. in 1871, 8,476. It has many manufactories, and its population is increasing.
Bocksberger, Or Bocksperger, Hans Or Hiero-Nymiis, a German painter, born in Salzburg in 1540, died at the end of the 16th or early in the 17th century. He excelled in battles and hunting scenes, illustrated in the ducal palace of Augsburg the history of Frederick Barba-rossa, and in 1579 executed frescoes in the castle of Trausnitz, which are still pointed out, together with his portraits of court jesters.