Bonnycastle. I. John, an English mathematician, born at White Church, Buckinghamshire, died at Woolwich, May 15, 1821. He was for more than 40 years one of the mathematical masters at the royal military academy at Woolwich, and published introductions to arithmetic, algebra, astronomy, geometry, and trigonometry, an edition of Euclid's "Elements," and a general history of mathematics from the French of Bossut. II. Charles, son of the preceding, born at Woolwich in 1792, died at Charlottesville, Va., in October, 1840. Ho assisted his father in preparing his mathematical text books, wrote various articles for cyclopaedias, and when the university of Virginia was founded was selected to occupy its chair of natural philosophy. He arrived in this country in 1825, was transferred to the professorship of mathematics in 1827, and was the author of a treatise on "Inductive Geometry " and of several memoirs on scientific subjects.
Bononcini, Or Buononcini, Giovanni Battista, an Italian composer, born at Modena about 1670, died after 1752. He became known at Vienna as a composer of operas, and the royal academy of music invited him to London to compose for the stage. Handel was invited at the same time, and the two became rivals in popular favor, the tories favoring Handel and the whigs Bononcini. The former steadily gained the ascendancy, and Bononcini became a pensioner on the duchess of Marlborough, who had led his admirers. Having palmed off a madrigal as his own which he had merely copied, he was obliged to leave London, and was subsequently composer for the chapel of the king at Paris. He finally went to Venice, where all trace of him is lost. None of his operas have retained their popularity.
Bonro, Or Boeroe Booro, an island of the Malay archipelago between lat. 3° and 4° S., and Ion. 126° and 127° E.; area, about 2,000 sq. m.; pop. 100,000. The surface is mountainous, the highest peak, Mount Donel, rising 10,400 feet; the soil is fertile, producing rice, sago, fruits, aromatic plants, and dyewoods. The island is well watered, and abounds with deer and babyroussa hogs. Fort Defence, on the E. side, is a Dutch station; on the north is Cajeli bay, where plentiful supplies can be obtained.
Bonzes, a term applied to the priests of Fo or Buddha in China, Japan, Cochin China, Burmah, etc. They are divided into various sects, but their teachings are much alike, and they have many customs in common. They profess celibacy, practise austerities of various kinds, and dwell together in monasteries. They always go with the head bare and closely shaven, and wear no beard. They are supposed to lead a life of prayer and contemplation, and at intervals teach the mass of worshippers in their temples. Among their moral teachings are strict honesty, chastity, and temperance. In their public devotions they use idols, some of them very hideous, but the real object of worship is an invisible spirit. There are female bonzes who live in convents, and to whom the education of girls is sometimes intrusted.