Bredewardine, Or Bredwardine Bradwardin, Thomas

Bredewardine, Or Bredwardine Bradwardin, Thomas, an English scholar and theologian, called "the profound doctor," died Aug. 26, 1349. He was a proctor at Oxford in 1325, and ultimately its chancellor, and afterward chaplain of the bishop of Durham, chancellor of the diocese of London, prebendary of Lincoln, chaplain to Edward III., and in 1349 archbishop of Canterbury. He was consecrated at Avignon in France, being at the time with the king in that country, and hastened to England to enter upon his duties, but died of the plague before his enthronement at Canterbury. lie was especially distinguished as a mathematician, and wrote several works on geometry, arithmetic, and the higher mathematics. But his principal work was his essay Be Causa Dei, in which, according to some writers, he advanced doctrines nearly approaching those of the modern Protestants. A folio edition of this, edited by Sir Henry Savile, appeared in London in 1618.


Breede (Dutch, broad), a river of Cape Colony, S. Africa, which rises in a mountain basin, and breaking through the mountains, takes a S. E. course to the sea, at Port Beaufort. It is one of the deepest and largest rivers of the country, but navigation is impeded by a bar at its mouth.


Bregenz (anc. Brigantium), a town of Austria, capital of Vorarlberg, situated at the E. end of the lake of Constance, near the mouth of the river Bregenz; pop. in 1870, 3,686. It is well built, and has considerable trade. Wooden houses ready made for the Alpine districts of Switzerland, and vine poles for the vineyards on the lake, are exported in large numbers. Not far from the town is the Bregenzer Klause, a pass formerly fortified. The Bregenzer Wald is a spur of the Allgau Alps. The lake of Bregenz is the name given to the S. E. portion of the lake of Constance. A treaty between Austria, Wurtemberg, and Bavaria against Prussia, in reference to the Hesse-Cassel imbroglio, was concluded here, Oct. 12, 1850. A conference for the regulation of the navigation of the lake of Constance was held here by the riparian powers in October, 1855.



Breguet. I. Abraham Lonis

Breguet. I. Abraham Lonis, a Swiss watchmaker, born at Neufchatel, Jan. 10, 1747, died Sept. 17, 1823. He established a manufactory in Paris, and was appointed chronometer maker to the navy, member of the bureau of longitudes, and member of the institute. His pocket chronometers, marine timepieces, sympathetic pendulums, metallic thermometers, and mechanism of telegraphs, as established by Chappe, attest his skill. II. Lonis, grandson of the preceding, born in Paris, Dec. 22, 1804. In 1826 he was placed at the head of the chronometer department of the navy founded by his grandfather. He soon turned his attention toward the application of the physical sciences, and especially to the electric telegraph. The timepieces constructed by him maintain the reputation gained by his father and grandfather.