See Plane Tree.

Butyric Acid

Butyric Acid, a volatile fatty acid discovered by Chevreul among the products of the decomposition of butter. Its formula is now written C4H802. Butyric acid has been found ready formed in human perspiration, in flesh juice, guano, excrements, putrid yeast, bad cider, dung heaps, accumulations of decomposing organic matter, in cod liver oil, and in beetles; and it is the substance which gives the disagreeable smell to rancid butter. It combines with bases to form salts, and also exists as butyric anhydride. It is a colorless, mobile liquid, of a peculiar offensive odor, having an acid taste and highly caustic property, and a specific gravity of 0-96. It can be prepared in a great variety of ways; among others, from butter, sugar, and by the action of hydriodc acid on succinic acid. Bromo-buty-ric acid, butyric aldehyde, and butyric chloride have been prepared, but they possess little practical importance.


Butzow, a walled town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 26 m. N. E. of Schwerin, at the confluence of the War now and the Nebel; pop. about 5,000. It contains a Gothic church of the 13th century, a new town hall, an old episcopal palace now used as a prison, many breweries, an iron foundery, and manufactories of brandy, oil, playing cards, straw hats, and machinery.

Buxtorf. I. Johann

Buxtorf. I. Johann, a German Hebraist, born at Kamen, Westphalia, Dec. 25, 1564, died of the plague in Basel, Sept. 13, 1629. He was professor at Basel for 38 years, and the most eminent oriental scholar of his day. His most important works are the Hebrew Bible with the rabbinical and masoretic notes, a Hebrew grammar, a Hebrew and Chaldee, and a Chaldee, Talmudical, and rabbinical lexicon, the last edited by his son. II. Johann, son of the preceding, born in Basel, Aug. 13, 1599, died there, Aug. 16, 1664. He succeeded his father in the chair of Hebrew at Basel in 1630, and occupied it for 34 years until his death. The same chair was filled by his son and his nephew successively during 68 years longer. He published a Chaldee and Syriac lexicon, a Latin translation of Maimonides's Moreh ne-bukhim, and the Concordantiae Bibliorum He-braicorum, begun by his father.


Buyukdereh, a village of European Turkey, on the W. side of the Bosporus, 9 m. N. N. E. of Constantinople, with which it is connected by steamers. It consists of an upper and a lower village. The latter contains many fine residences and gardens and the magnificent palace of the Russian embassy. Together with the adjoining Therapia, it is the favorite resort of foreign ministers and wealthy families during the summer, the promenade along the quay being very attractive. The valley of Buyuk-dereh extends inland for about 3 m.



Buzzard's Bay

Buzzard's Bay, on the S. coast of Massachusetts, 30 m. long by a mean width of 7 m., contains the harbors of New Bedford, Fair Haven, Mattapoisett, Sippican, and Wareham. It is sheltered from the ocean, and separated from Vineyard sound, by the Elizabeth islands.