See Ottawa.

C. M. Lepee

C. M. L'Epee, abbe de. See Epee.

Ca Ira

Ca Ira, a revolutionary song popular in France during the reign of terror. Originally the music was a favorite air of Marie Antoinette, who was doomed to hear it again on her way to the guillotine. For four years it accompanied the victims of the first revolution to the guillotine with the refrain:

"Ah, ca ira, ca ira, ca ira, Les aristocrates a la lanterne".

Napoleon, on entering upon the consulate, prohibited this and all other songs which savored of the reign of terror. Yet, like the Marseillaise, the Carmagnole, and the Chant du depart, it became one of the French national songs.

Caaba, Or Eaaba

See Mecca.


Cabal, a small body of men united for some party or sinister purpose. It doubtless came from the French cabale, which has the same meaning as the English word. Some authors have erroneously stated that the word was formed about 1670, from the initials of the five ministers of Charles II., Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington, and Lauderdale, called the cabal ministry; but it was in use in English long before their time. It was probably derived from the Hebrew Cabala, and like that word generally conveyed the idea of something secret and mysterious.

Cabanel Alexandre

Cabanel Alexandre, a French painter, born in Montpellier, Sept. 28, 1823. He studied in Paris under Picot, obtained prizes in 1844 and 1845 for his earliest productions, and has increased his reputation by many pictures on religious and mythological subjects. Among the latter are the "Nymph carried off by a Faun " (1859), and " The Birth of Venus," of which he executed a copy in 1871 for New York, and another copy is in Philadelphia. He is also eminent as a portrait painter. In 1863 he succeeded Horace Vernet as a member of the academy of fine arts, and was appointed professor in the school of fine arts.


Cabarrus, a S. W. county of North Carolina; area, 350 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 11,954, of whom 3,929 were colored. The surface is uneven, and in some places mountainous; the soil is of moderate but not uniform fertility. It is watered by branches of Rocky river, an affluent of the Yadkin. It produced gold in the early part of the present century. ■ The North Carolina railroad crosses it. The chief productions in 1870 were 87,9G8 bushels of wheat, 268,560 of Indian corn, 47,590 of oats, 2,248 tons of hay, and 2,703 bales of cotton. There were 1,797 horses, 1,035 mules and asses, 2,469 milch cows, 3,945 other cattle, 4,667 sheep, and 13,27.6 swine. Capital, Concord.

Cabeca De Vaca

See Nunez, Alvar.

Cabeea De Vaca

See Nunez, Alvar.


Cabell, a S. W. county of "West Virginia, separated on the N. "W. from Ohio by the Ohio river. A part has been recently taken off to form a portion of Lincoln county; former area, 448 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,429, of whom 123 were colored. It is watered by the Guyan-dotte, and traversed by the principal thoroughfare from the Ohio to Richmond. The surface is hilly, and the soil in many places good. The Chesapeake and Ohio railroad intersects the county. The chief productions in 1870 were 42,592 bushels of wheat, 167,600 of Indian corn, 31,586 of oats, 17,398 of potatoes, and 135,410 lbs. of tobacco. There were 765 horses, 833 milch cows, 2,345 other cattle, 4,025 sheep, and 3,866 swine. Capital, Barboursville.