Callmachus. I

A Greek architect and statuary, supposed to have lived before 396 B. C, and said to have invented the Corinthian column. II. An Alexandrian grammarian and poet, born at Cyrene in Africa, died about 240 B. C. He was chief librarian of the Alexandrian library from 260 till his death. For some time he kept a school at Alexandria, and numbered among his pupils Eratosthenes, Aristophanes of Byzantium, and Apollonius Rho-dius. Only six hymns and 74 epigrams remain of his numerous writings.

Caloric

See Heat.

Calovius

Calovius (originally Kalau), Abraham, a German Lutheran divine, born at Mohrungen, in Prussia, April 16, 1612, died in Wittenberg, Feb. 25, 1686. He was first a teacher in Rostock, in 1637 a professor at Konigsberg, in 1643 rector at Dantzic, and after 1650 professor of theology at Wittenberg. He was engaged in numerous theological controversies, conducted with much intemperance on each side; was a rigid adherent of his sect, and opposed the Socinians, and also the conciliatory views of George Oalixtus, to which he was the first to apply the name of Syncretism. Among his principal works were: Systerna Locorum Theologicorum (Wittenberg, 12 parts, 1665-'77); Apodixis Articulorum Fidei (1686); Historia Syncretistica (1682).

Calpe

Calpe, the ancient name of the rock of Gibraltar, at the S. extremity of Spain, the northern of the two hills called by the ancients the pillars of Hercules. Across the straits of Gibraltar, on the African coast, was Abyla, the southern pillar.

Calpee, Or Kalpee

Calpee, Or Kalpee, a town of British India, in the district of Bundelcund, province of Doab, on the right bank of the Jumna, 45 m. S. W. of Cawnpore; pop. about 25,000. It is a large but ill-built town, the houses being constructed of mud or of conglomerate, with a fort commanding the river, but of no great strength. It is the depot for the cotton trade of Bundelcund, and is famous for the manufacture of remarkably fine refined sugar. Paper making is also carried on to some extent. Calpee was taken from the Mahrattas by the British in 1778, was subsequently relinquished, and in 1802 was again acquired by the East India company by the treaty of Bassein. It was at that time occupied by Nana Govind Row, jaghirdar of Jaloon, who refused to give it up to the British, and was accordingly besieged, and finally forced into submission. In 1858 Sir Hugh Rose captured the town from the sepoys, after some hard fighting.

Caltagirone, Or Calatagirone

Caltagirone, Or Calatagirone, a city of Sicily, 34 m. S. W. of Catania; pop. about24,000. It is built on the summit of a steep mountain 1,800 ft. high, and with its suburbs covers a considerable extent of ground. It is the see of a bishop, and is one of the wealthiest and best built towns on the island. Its inhabitants excel in all the useful arts, and many of them find employment in the potteries and cotton factories of the place. There are several churches, palaces, convents, and a royal college. The town was fortified by the Saracens, and taken from them by the Genoese. Roger Guiscard granted it many privileges.