Calw, Or Rahv, a town of Wiirtemberg, situated 21 m. W. S. W. of Stuttgart; pop. in 1871, 5,582. It lies in a deep and well wooded valley on both banks of the Nagold, which is crossed here by two bridges, and divides it into the upper and lower towns. It has seven churches, a Latin school, and an important foreign missionary institute. The town church and town house are handsome, particularly the latter, which has a fine hall with an arched roof. It is the chief seat of the lumber trade of the Black Forest, and has a number of woollen and cotton factories. It was in ancient times the capital of the counts of Calw, the wealthiest and most powerful of the Swabian nobles, the ruins of whose castle are still to be seen in the vicinity. Victor II., who was pope from 1055 to 1057, belonged to this family.
Calx, a term at first employed by the alchemists to designate the product obtained by heating a metal in the air. Subsequently it was limited to lime prepared by calcination. (See Lime).
Calymene (Gr. , concealed, so named from the obscure nature of the genus), a genus of trilobites characterized by the faculty of rolling the body into the form of a ball, by bringing the two extremities of the trunk together. In some rock formations they are found thus coiled up in great numbers. They are abundant both in this country and in Europe, their range being among the lower fossiliferous rocks. In some of the species the structure of the eye is beautifully preserved, showing that, in these earliest formed crustace-ous animals of the most remote geological periods, the same provisions were made for adapting this member to the peculiar necessities of the animal, that are now seen in the complicated structure of the eye of the butterfly.
Calypso, a nymph, according to Homer the daughter of Atlas, who dwelt on the island of Ogygia. When Ulysses was shipwrecked there, she fell in love with him and retained him for seven years, until the gods compelled her to let him continue his journey. • She bore two sons to him, and promised him immortality if he would remain, and died of grief after his departure.
Cam, Or Granta, a river of England, rises in N.Hertfordshire, runs in a N. E. course of about 40 m. through Cambridgeshire, is navigable by small craft as far as Cambridge, and falls into the Ouse 15 m. from the latter city, and about 4 m. from Ely.
Camaldules, Or Camaldolensians, a religious order founded in 1012 by St. Romuald, a Benedictine monk of the ducal house of Ravenna, in the valley of Camaldoli, in the Apennines, near Arezzo. Pope Alexander II. confirmed the order in 1072, and an order of Camaldu-lensian nuns was founded in 1086. The habit was white. The rule, which was very severe, was modified in 1233 and 1254. The order was divided into monks and hermits. These united at times under one rule, but were generally distinct. In the 18th century they formed five independent groups, four in various parts of Italy, and one at Grosbois, near Paris. The order disappeared in the troubles of the French revolution, except in Italy, where it subsisted till the general suppression of religious orders. Pope Gregory XVI. was originally a Camaldule.