Castlemain, a town of Australia, in the colony of Victoria, situated at the junction of Barker's and Forest creeks, 65 m. N. W. of Melbourne; pop. in 1871, 7,308. In the early days of gold mining it was a place of great importance, the diggings in the neighborhood being among the first discovered in Australia. It is a principal station on the Victoria railway.
Castleton, a post village and township of Rutland co., Vt., on Castleton river, at the intersection of the Rutland and Washington, and the Rensselaer and Saratoga railroads, 12 m. W. of Rutland; pop. in 1870, 3,243. It is noted for its slate quarries, and is the seat of a seminary and a state normal school.
Castletown, the capital of the Isle of Man, England, on a bay of the same name, near the S. extremity of the island; pop. in 1871, 2,373. It contains King William's college, founded in 1830, and Castle Rushen, said to have been built by a Danish prince in 960. It is the seat of the governor and the courts of law.
Castor, a substance somewhat resembling musk, secreted by the beaver. It is of the consistency of honey, and has a strong, penetrating, fetid, and volatile odor, which is lost when the substance is dried and hardened. It is used to some extent in medicine as an antispasmodic and stimulant, and is thought to act especially upon the nervous system. It was known and recommended by Pliny and Dioscorides, but it has not a high reputation among modern practitioners; and as it is often largely adulterated, there will be little cause for regret should its use be discontinued. The article considered the best is obtained from Russia. The American beaver produces an inferior quality. Benzoic acid is recognized among the numerous organic compounds of which this substance consists.
Castor River, a stream of S. E. Missouri, which rises in St. Francois co., flows S., communicates by several arms with a group of small lakes in Stoddard co., and afterward unites with the Whitewater river. The stream thus formed, which is sometimes called the Castor, but more frequently the Whitewater, flows through a low swampy region, in which most of the streams spread themselves over a large surface and form extensive marshes or lakes. It receives the outlet of Lake Pemisco, and finally discharges itself into Big lake.
Castres, a town of Languedoc, France, department of Tarn, 20 m. S. E. of Albi; pop. in 1866, 21,357. It lies in a fertile valley on both sides of the river Agout, which is here crossed by two stone bridges. It is the seat of a Protestant consistory, having been one of the first towns to embrace the doctrines of Calvin. It is noted for its fine wool-dyed cloths, and has manufactures of silk, woollen, and cotton goods, linen, paper, soap, etc. Castres was a flourishing place in the 12th century. It suffered much in the religious wars of the 1 (3th century, and its fortifications were destroyed by Louis XIII. in 1629. It was long the residence of Henry IV. during his religious wars.