Catamount. See Couguar.
Cataplasm (Gr. kaтaπaσσείυ, to spread over, to plaster), a poultice or soft substance applied externally to some part of the body, either to repress inflammation and allay pain, or to promote inflammation or its consequences, and lessen the pain attending it. For the former purpose it is applied cold, and often contains a preparation of lead to increase its astringent and refrigerating power; for the latter it is used at different degrees of temperature. When intended to hasten the progress of inflammation and lead to suppuration, poultices should be of as high a temperature as the part will bear, but of a lower temperature when used as mere emollients. Cotton wool, steeped in water, and bound to the part with a light bandage, is a very simple and efficient application, in most cases where a cold poultice is required to allay pain and repress inflammation. Warm poultices may be made of bread, slippery elm bark, or flaxseed meal.
Catapult (Gr. kaтa, against, and πaλλειv, to hurl), an ancient military engine for throwing stones, darts, and other missiles, invented in Syracuse in the reign of Dionysius the Elder. It acted upon the principle of the bow, and consisted of wood framework, a part of which was elastic, and furnished with tense cords of hair or gut. Catapults were of various sizes, being designed either for field service or bombardments. The largest of them projected beams 6 ft. long and weighing 60 lbs. to the distance of 400 paces, and Josephus gives instances of their throwing great stones to the distance of a quarter of a mile. The Romans employed 300 of them at the siege of Jerusalem. From the time of Julius Coasar it is not distinguished by Latin authors from the bal-lista, which was originally used only for throwing masses of stone.
Catasauqua A, a borough of Lehigh co., Penn., on the left bank of the Lehigh river, 3 m. above Allentown; pop. in 1870, 2.853. It contains 7 churches, a bank, 4 hotels, a semimonthly periodical, 2 machine shops, 2 rolling mills, gas works, and 5 blast furnaces, one of which produces 250 tons of iron a week. The Lehigh Valley and the Lehigh and Susquehanna railroads are joined here by the Catasauqua and Fogelsville railroad.
Catawba Wine. See American Wines.
Catawba, Or Great Catawba, a river of North and South Carolina. It rises in the Blue Ridge, in McDowell co., N. C, flows nearly E. through the gold region of North Carolina, makes a bend to the south at the W. border of Iredell co., and enters South Carolina near the mouth of the Little Catawba, or Catawba creek, in York co. After reaching Rocky Mount, and being joined by Fishing creek, it takes the name of the Wateree, and ultimately unites with the Congaree to form the San-tee. The length of the Catawba is about 250 m.; that of the Wateree, 100 m.