Celestins. See Celestine V.
Celestin Naxteuil, a French artist, born in Rome in 1813, died in Paris in 1873. He studied under Langlois and Ingres, and exhibited his first work, a "Holy Family," in 1833, followed by "A Beggar" (1831), and "Christ Healing the Sick" (1837). But he was mainly employed as a lithographer, and in the course of about 30 years executed more than 2,000 vignettes for literary and musical publications. Among his more recent paintings are "The Temptation" (1S51), " The Vine "(1853), "Souvenirs of the Past" and "The Kiss of Judas" (1858), the latter after Van Dyck, of which he also produced an admirable engraving.
Celestino Cayedoni, an Italian archaeologist and numismatist, born near Reggio, May 18, 1795, died in Modena, Nov. 26, 1865. He was educated in the episcopal seminary at Modena, studied archaeology, Greek, and Hebrew at Bologna, became director of the numismatic collections of the library of Modena, and from 1830 to 1863 was professor of hermeneutics at the university. His principal works are Nu-mismatica Biblica (Modena, 1850; German translation by Werlhof, 2 vols., Hanover, 1855-'6), and Confutazione dei principali er-rori di Ernesto Benan nella sua Vie de Jesus (Modena, 1863).
Cellarer (Lat. cellarius), under the Roman emperors, a functionary who examined the accounts, and to whom was committed the care of their domestic affairs. The name was subsequently given to the purveyors or agents for prelates and monasteries. The cellarer was one of the four great officers of monasteries, and had under his orders the bakehouse and the brewhouse. He regulated the harvesting and storing of the corn, and managed the whole economy of the provisions. His compensation was 1/13 of all the grain received, and a furred gown. The office was sometimes held by persons of illustrious birth. Philip of Savoy, in 1243, was cellarer to the archbishop of Vienna.
Celle, Or Zelle, a town of Prussia, in the province of Hanover, on the river Aller, which is here navigable, and on the Hanover and Harburg railway, 24 m. 1ST. E. of Hanover; pop. in 1871, 16,147. It is a well built and paved town, the seat of the supreme court of Hanover, contains churches of different denominations, an old castle formerly occupied by the dukes of Luneburg, a Protestant gymnasium, two public libraries, an agricultural society, and various other public institutions. Celle is also noted for its annual horse races. In the castle park is the mausoleum of Caroline Matilda, queen of Denmark, who died here. The inhabitants are employed in the manufacture of tobacco, cigars, and stearine, and carry on transit trade in wool, wax, honey, and wood.
Celsus, an Eclectic philosopher of the 2d century, He was the author of a work against Christianity, entitled '. The work itself is not extant, but a large part of it is contained in the answer to it written by Origen a century later. He was skilled in both the Epicurean and Platonic philosophies, and argued a priori against the doctrines of the Christian religion. From the statement given by Origen of his arguments, however, his chief reliance would seem to have been on sarcasm and ridicule. He is admitted by some of the Christian fathers to have exhibited great keenness and wit. His work was the first which was written in opposition to Christianity after it became known to the Greeks.