Chalcidiafts, a family of snake-like lizards, whose scales are rectangular as in ordinary reptiles, and arranged in regular transverse rows; they lead on the one hand to the skinks, and on the other to the long, serpentiform lizards, like the glass snake, blindworm, and amphisbajna. They have four legs, often very rudimentary, and always small and feeble, with one to four or five toes; the eyes are small, with lids, ears exposed, and tongue short and fleshy. They are found in the warmer parts of South America, Africa, and the East Indies. By the older naturalists they were regarded as snakes, to which they form a natural transition. Their food consists of small insects; they are perfectly harmless.

Brazen Lizard (Chalcis flavescens).

Brazen Lizard (Chalcis flavescens).


Chalcidice, the ancient name of the peninsula forming the S. E. portion of Macedonia, and terminating in the three smaller peninsulas of Acte, Sithonia, and Pallene, extending into the AEgean sea. Its eastern extremity is Mt. Athos. Generally hilly and rugged, Chalcidice was more celebrated for the ability and energy of its inhabitants than for its productions or natural features. Settled by colonists from Eubcea about the 7th century B. C, the country maintained its independence until after the Peloponnesian war, when it was subdued by the Spartans. Its subsequent history may be found in that of its chief town, Olynthus.


Chalcidius, a Platonic philosopher, supposed to have flourished in the 5th or 6th century. He is described upon the manuscripts of his work as vir clarissimus, and these vague words are the only allusions which we have to his life. There remains from him a Latin translation of the first part of the "Timreus" of Plato, with a learned commentary. This work is dedicated to a certain Osius, who has been by some regarded, but without any evidence, as the archbishop Osius who took a leading part in the debates of the council of Nice in 325. Gi-raldi and Brucker have maintained that Chal-cidius was a Christian, Goujet and Mosheim that he was a pagan. The last and best edition of his commentary is that of Fabricius, at the end of the second volume of the works of St. llippolytus (Hamburg, 1718).

Chalcondyles, Or Chalcocondyles

Chalcondyles, Or Chalcocondyles. I. Laoni-cns or Nicolans, a Byzantine historian, born in Athens near the end of the 14th century, died about 1464. He was present at the siege of Constantinople, and wrote a history of the Turks and the fall of the Byzantine empire, which is quoted by Gibbon. The best Greek edition was published in 1650, and a French translation by Blaise de Vigneres (1557-'84). II. Demetrius, a Greek scholar, a relative, some say a son, of the preceding, born in Athens about 1423, died in Milan about 1510. He taught Greek at Perugia, and was afterward appointed professor at Florence, where he remained till 1492, when he removed to Milan. He prepared the first printed editions of Homer (Florence, 1488), of Isocrates (Milan, 1493), and of Suidas (1499); and composed a Greek grammar, Erotemata (Milan, 1493).