Chalice (Lat. calix, a cup), the vessel containing the consecrated wine in the sacrament of the eucharist. In honor of its sacred purpose, it has usually been made of as costly a substance as the circumstances of a church permitted, and often embellished with sculptures and precious stones. St. Ambrose relates that in periods of distress the early Christians sold their chalices to aid the poor.
Cham, The Assumed Name Of Amedee Noe, a French caricaturist, born in Paris, Jan. 20, 1819. He is a son of the count de Noe, studied painting, and acquired celebrity by his caricatures in the Charivari and other illustrated papers, many of which have been collected in separate publications. He is also the joint or sole author of librettos and vaudevilles. His cartoons, many of which have a political aspect, are notable for their sharp point and free, spirited execution.
Chama (Gr. to gape), a genus of lamellibranchiate bivalves of the family chamidae, which includes also the genera monopleura and diccras, all distinguished by inequivalve shells, one of which has two teeth and the other one; the foot is small, as also the corresponding pedal orifice. More than 50 species are described, inhabiting tropical seas, especially among coral reefs, as deep as 50 fathoms; nearly as many fossil species have been found, from the greensand forward, both in America and Europe. Having two abductor muscles, they belong to the dimyary group, and, like the kindred families of this group, have short siphons and are marked by a simple pallial line. By Linnaeus, Cuvier, and De Blainville, the genus was made of great importance, including many shells now transferred to other families. The giant clam, tridacna gigas, was one of these. (See Clam.)
Chamberlayne. I. Edward, an English author, born at Odington, Gloucestershire, in 1616, died at Chelsea in 1703. Educated at Oxford, he travelled abroad during the civil wars. In 1679 he was appointed tutor to Henry, duke of Grafton, a natural son of Charles II., and afterward to Prince George of Denmark, the husband of Queen Anne. He is best known by his " Angliae Notitia, or the Present State of England" (London, 1667), to which Macaulay frequently refers, and which passed through many editions. An inscription on his grave in Chelsea states that six of his works were buried along with him. II. John, son of the preceding, died in 1723. He continued his father's work under the title of Nagnce Britannia Notitia, etc, publishing several new editions. With all its defects, this was the only statistical authority of his day. He was a graduate of Oxford, wrote several original works, and translated the "Religious Philosopher" from the Dutch of Nieuwentyt (3 vols., 1718).
Chambertin, a famous vineyard of France, in the department of Cote d'Or, 6 m. S. S. W. of Dijon. It is about 60 acres in extent, divided among several proprietors. The annual produce rarely exceeds 150 pipes of red wine, which ranks among the best of Burgundy.