Charles Frederick Briggs, an American author and journalist, born on the island of Nantucket about 1810. Early in life he removed to the city of New York, where he edited several periodicals, and became a constant contributor to others. In 1839 he published a novel entitled "The Adventures of Harry Franco, a Tale of the great Panic." Four ye'ars later his "Haunted Merchant" appeared, and in 1847 " The Trippings of Tom Pepper, or the Results of Romancing." In 1844 he commenced the " Broadway Journal," of which in the following year Edgar A. Poe became his associate editor. He was an editor of "Putnam's Magazine " from 1853 to 1856, in connection with George "William Curtis and Parke Godwin, and also of the new series of the magazine in 1869. He was for some years one of the editors of the "New York Times," and is now (1873) one of the editors of the " Brooklyn Union".
Charles Gamage Eastman, an American poet, born in Fryeburg, Me., June 1, 1816, died in Burlington, Vt., in 1861. He early went with his parents to Barnard, Vt.; was editor of the Burlington "Sentinel" in 1835-'6; commenced the "Lamoille River Express" newspaper at Johnson, Vt., in 1838; established the " Spirit of the Age " at Woodstock, Vt., in 1840; and purchased the "Vermont Patriot" and removed to Montpelierin 1846. He was postmaster at Woodstock and Montpelier for several years, and senator for Washington county in 1851-'2. He published a volume of poems in 1848, was a contributor of poetry to reviews and magazines, and pronounced poems at the university of Vermont, and at Dartmouth and other colleges.
Charles I. See Charles V., German v.
Charles I. (Karl Friedrich Alexander), born March 6, 1823. He married July 13, 1846, the Russian grand duchess Olga, daughter of the emperor Nicholas, and a sister of the present czar. He succeeded to the throne June 25, 1864, on the death of his father William I. He sided with Austria in the German war of 1866, but after the battle of Sadowa concluded a secret military treaty with Prussia, and took part on her side in the Franco-German war of 1870-'71, joining the new German empire at the close of 1870.
Charles Jean Marie Lucas, a French economist, born in St. Brieuc, May 3, 1803, died in Paris, May 6, 1874. He became an advocate, and from 1830 to 1853 was inspector general of prisons in the ministry of the interior; afterward until 1865 he presided over the board of inspectors general in the same ministry. In 1847 he founded the agricultural penal establishment at Val d'Yevre. Among his works are Du systeme penitentiairc en Europe et aux Etats-Unis, which gained the Montyon prize (3 vols., 1826-'30), and De la reforme des prisons, ou de la theorie de l'imprisonnement (3 vols., 1836-'8). He wrote several essays advocating the abolition of capital punishment, and not long before his death addressed to the Italian statesman Mancini a communication published under the title, La peine de mort et l'unification penale, etc. (Paris, 1874).