Chiari, a town of N. Italy, in the province and 15 m. W. of Brescia, near the left bank of the Oglio; pop. about 10,000. It has a handsome collegiate church and a public library, and considerable trade, especially in silk. It is surrounded by an ancient ruined wall, and many Roman remains are found.


Chiaroscuro, an Italian word, sometimes rendered in English by the term "clear-obscure," which is used in painting to designate the distribution of the lights and shadows of a picture in such a manner that the objects may be naturally and effectively relieved from one another. It comprehends all the lights and darks of a picture, and particularly refers to their arrangement in masses on opposite sides. Correggio, Leonardo da Vinci, Giorgione, and particularly Rembrandt, were the chief masters of the art of chiaroscuro.


Chiavari, a town of Italy, in the province of Genoa, situated on the gulf and 20 m. S. E. of Genoa, at the mouth of the river Sterla, and on the Genoa and Sarzana railway; pop. about 10,000. It has narrow streets, open Gothic arcades, substantial houses of remarkable architecture, picturesque towers, and handsome churches. It contains a Franciscan convent, a hospital, an ecclesiastical seminary, a public library, and agricultural and artistic associations. There are manufactures of lace, twist, and cabinet ware, and anchovy fisheries; and in the vicinity are good quarries of marble and slate.


Chiavenna (anc. Clavenna), a town of N. Italy, in the province and 20 m. W. N. W. of Sondrio, on the Maira; pop. about 2,500. It is situated in the midst of vineyards at the foot of the Ehretian Alps, is surrounded by walls, and well built. The baptistery of one of its churches is remarkable for some interesting antiquities and specimens of mosaic work executed in bones. A castle, a town hall, and a hospital are the other chief buildings. The town derives its importance from its situation on the Splugen road, the great thoroughfare of trade between Switzerland and Italy, with both which countries it has an active commerce. It manufactures paper, beer, for which the town is noted, wine, amianthus cloth, pottery, and silk, the last being the staple.


Chicacole. See Cicacole.


Chickadee. See Blackcap.


Chiclana, a town of Spain, in the province and 11 m. S. E. of the city of Cadiz; pop. about 9,000. It has a number of country residences belonging to the wealthy inhabitants of Cadiz, the workhouse of that city, a hospital, and a theatre. Near the town, on March 5, 1811, the battle of Barosa was fought between the Anglo-Spanish army under Sir Thomas Graham and the French under Victor.


Chicoitimi, a N. county of the province of Quebec, Canada, intersected by the Saguenay, and containing besides the parishes a large unorganized territory; area, 23,759 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 17,493, of whom 16,643 were of French origin, and 17,393 Roman Catholics. Much of the surface is rugged and uneven, though recent explorations give a better impression of its agricultural capabilities. The pine forests, which are of immense extent and great value, have been partially worked for several years. Vessels are freighted with timber for England at the town of Chicoutimi, the capital'of the county, 180 m. up the Saguenay.