Chivasso, Or Chivas (Anc

Chivasso, Or Chivas (Anc. Clavisium), a city of Italy, situated in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Po, on the railway from Turin to Ticino, in the province and 14 m. N. E. of Turin; pop. about 5,000. It has a church dating from 1425, five convents, and the ruins of an ancient castle or palace of the counts of Montferrat. Jts trade is chiefly in grain and cattle; it is also celebrated for its lampreys. For a long period it was regarded as the key of Piedmont, and was well fortified, but its defences were destroyed by the French in 1804. A few miles below, on the other side of the Po, are the remains of the ancient city of In-dustria, discovered in 1745.


Chloralum, a trade name given by Prof. John Gamgee to the hydrated chloride of aluminum. It has been prepared as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and also for use in medicine.


Chlorates, monobasic salts of chloric acid, HClO3, having the general formula MClO3. They are all soluble in water, and are transformed by heat into oxygen and a metallic chloride. The only one which possesses much importance in medicine or the arts is the potassium chlorate, which will be treated of with the salts of that metal.


Chlorodyne, a name given to several secret preparations, the most important ingredients of which are chloroform, morphia, cannabis in-dica, capsicum, and hydrocyanic acid. Dangerous and even fatal results have followed its use, as might indeed be supposed from the activity of the substances which enter into its composition, and the uncertainty of its doses.


Chlorophyl (Gr.Chlorophyl 0400242 green, andChlorophyl 0400243 leaf), the substance which gives the green color to leaves and herbage. It may be dissolved from the leaves by alcohol or ether, and is found to consist partly of wax, and partly of a peculiar substance allied to indigo.

Chmdio Monteverde

Chmdio Monteverde, an Italian composer, born in Cremona about 1565, died in Venice in 1649. He composed both secular and ecclesiastical music, but was particularly celebrated for his motets and madrigals, of the latter of which he produced five books.


Chocim. See Khotin.


Choi. See KHOI.


Choin. I. Marie Emilie Joly de, a French noble woman, born in Bourg, died in 1744. Introduced by the princess de Conti at the court of Louis XIV., his son, the dauphin, is said to have secretly married her, after which she was treated with the same regard which was paid to Mme. de Maintenon, the king eventually inviting her to reside near his court at Versailles, but she preferred to remain at Meudon. After the death of the dauphin she lived in great retirement, and was respected for her dignity and virtues. II. Louis Albert Joly de, a French prelate, born in Bourg, Jan. 22, 1702, died April 16, 1759. In 1730 he became bishop of Toulon, and acquired renown by the simplicity and purity of his life, by his charitable works, and by his Instruction sur le rituel (3 vols., Lyons, 1778; new ed. by Cardinal Gous-set, 6 vols., Besancon, 1828), which is noted for the fulness of its information on ecclesiastical subjects.