Christian Ernst Bentzel-Sternau, count, a German author and statesman, born at Mentz, April 9, 1767, died in Switzerland, Aug. 13, 1850. He entered public life in 1791 as councillor of the electorate of Mentz at Erfurt, and in 1812 was appointed minister of state and finance of the recently established grand duchy of Frankfort. When this was abolished in 1814 he retired to Switzerland, and resided there the rest of his life. He was an opponent of the privileges of the clergy and hereditary nobles, and became a Protestant in 1827. He wrote a great number of romances, some poetry, and a few plays, and was editor of the Jason from 1808 to 1811. The first of his romances which attracted attention was Das goldene Kalb (4 vols., Gotha, 1802-4). Among the most noted of his other novels were Der steineme Gast (4 vols., 1808) and Der alte Adam (4 vols., 1819-'20). His novels are satirical and humorous.
Christian Friedrich August Dillmann, a German orientalist, born at Hlingen, Wurtemberg, April 25, 1823. He studied at Tubingen, and after a visit to the oriental museums of Paris and London resided for several years at the university as a private teacher. In 1854 he became professor of oriental languages at Kiel, and in 1864 professor of Old Testament exegesis at Giessen. In 1869 he succeeded Hengstenberg at the university of Berlin. His fame rests mainly on his great labors in behalf of the Ethiopic language. His principal works are: Grammatik der athiopischen Sprache (Leipsic, 1857); Lexicon Linguoe AEthi-opicoe (1862-6); and Chrestomathia AEthiopica, edita et Glossario explanata (1866).
Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart, a German poet, born at Obersontheim, Swabia, March 26, 1739, died in Stuttgart, Oct. 10, 1791. After a dissolute and adventurous life, he was driven from Augsburg, where he had established the Deutsche Chronik (1774-'7), for deriding the clergy, and transferred it to Ulm; and for publishing there a false report of the death of Maria Theresa he was imprisoned about ten years. Schiller visited him during that period, and the king of Prussia obtained his release in 1787. In Stuttgart, where he became musical director and director of the theatre, he continued his periodical under the title of Vaterlands- Chronik. He wrote Ge-dichte aus dem Kerher (1785), Hymnus auf Friedrich den Grossen (1786), an autobiography, and a large number of religious songs. His Gesammelte Schriften und Schicksale appeared in 8 vols. (Stuttgart, 1839-'40). - See Schubarfs Leben in seinen Briefen, by David Friedrich Strauss (2 vols., Berlin, 1849).
Christian Friedrich Schonbein, a German chemist, born at Metzingen, Würtemberg, Oct. 18, 1799, died in Baden-Baden, Aug. 28, 1868. He was early apprenticed to a manufacturer of chemical products, and was conscripted, but was exempted from military service by the king, who assisted him in completing his education at Tübingen and Erlangen. In 1824-'5 he taught chemistry and physics at Keilhau near Rudolstadt. In 1828 he became professor at the university of Basel. In 1839 he discovered the allotropic condition of oxygen known as ozone (see Ozone), and in 1845 he produced gun cotton. His most noteworthy works are: Das Verhalten des Eisens zum Sauerstoff (Basel, 1837); Beiträge zur physi-kalischen Chemie (1844); Ueber die Erzeugung des Ozons (1844); and Ueber die langsame und rasche Verbrennung der Körper in atmosphä-rischer Luft (1845). - See Christian Friedrich Schönbein, by Hagenbach (Basel, 1869).