Christoph Gottfried Bardili, a German metaphysical writer, born at Blaubeuren, in Wiirtem-berg, May 28, 1761, died in Stuttgart in 1808. He is principally known by his work on the elements of logic, published in 1800, and directed against the philosophy of Kant. He was a very abstruse and obscure writer, but his system contains the germ of the later philosophy of absolute identity.
Christoph Meiners, a German historian, born in a village of Hanover in 1747, died in Gottingen, May 1, 1810. He was educated at the university of Gottingen, where in 1772 lie was appointed professor of philosophy, and subsequently vice rector. He was charged by the czar Alexander with the task of selecting professors of science and literature for the Russian colleges. Of his numerous works, the most important are devoted to the history of religion, philosophy, and science.
Christoph Ruben, a German painter, born in Treves in 1805. He studied at Düsseldorf, and in Munich under Cornelius, was connected with the academy of Prague, and in 1852 became director of that of Vienna. He has executed many cartoons for churches and for the palace of Hohenschwangau. His most celebrated oil painting is "Columbus at the Moment of Discovering Land," now in Prague.
Christoph Wilhelm Eckersberg, a Danish historical, marine, and portrait painter, born near Apenrade, Jan. 2, 1783, died in Copenhagen, July 22, 1853. He studied at the Copenhagen academy, and in Italy and France. Rising rapidly to considerable distinction, he was in 1817 made an academician, and almost immediately a professor at the academy. Among his important works are his picture of Moses commanding the Red sea to close after the passage of the Israelites, "Death of Baldur," a scene from Oehlenschlager's "Axel and Wal-purga," and "Roadstead of Helsingfors."
Christopher Andreas Holmboe, a Norwegian philologist, born at Vang in 1796. He studied in Christiania, and also in Paris under Sylvestre de Sacy and Caussin de Perceval, and became in 1822 professor at the university of Christiania. His works, written in Norwegian, Danish, German, French, and Latin, relating to Scriptural studies, archaeology, numismatics, and comparative philology, include De Prisca Be Monetaria Norvegioe (Christiania, 1841; 5th ed., 1854); Sanskrit og Oldnorske (1840); Det norske Sprog voesentligste Ordforraad sam-menlignet med Sanskrit (1852); and Traces du bouddhisme en Norvege avant l'introduction du christianisme (Paris, 1857-'70).
Christopher Gore, an American statesman, born in Boston, Sept. 21, 1758, died at Wal-tham, March 1, 1827. He graduated at Harvard college in 1770, studied law, and was soon engaged in good practice. In 1789 he was appointed the first United States district attorney for Massachusetts; in 1790 he was chosen one of the commissioners to settle the claims of the United States upon Great Britain for spoliations, and remained in London, successfully engaged in the duties of this office, about eight years; in 1803 he acted as charge d'affaires; in 1809 was chosen governor of Massachusetts; and in 1814 was elected to the United States senate, where he served about three years. He left the most of his property to Harvard college.