Christopher North

See Wilsox, Jonx.

Christopher Smart

Christopher Smart, an English author, born at Shipborne, Kent, April 11, 1722, died in the king's bench prison, London, May 18, 1770. He was educated at Cambridge, and elected a fellow of Pembroke hall in 1745, and gained the Seatonian prize for poems on the Supreme Being for five years consecutively. In 1753 he married, removed to London, and supported himself by writing. Through intemperance and extreme poverty he lost his reason, and was confined in a lunatic asylum for two years. He made a prose translation of Horace, and metrical versions of Horace and Phae-drus, and of the Psalms. Among his other works is "The Hilliad, an Epic Poem," a satire on Sir John Hill, who had criticised him. In 1752 he published a collection of his poems. A posthumous edition appeared in 1791 with a memoir (2 vols. 12mo). His Horace has had several editions in the present century.


Chronometer. See Clocks and Watches.


Chrudim, a town of Bohemia, formerly capital of a circle of the same name, situated on the right bank of the Chrudimka, 00 m. E. S. E. of Prague; pop. in 1809, 11,218. It has a ReaUchule, a high school, several breweries, sugar factories, and paper mills.


Chryseis, daughter of Chryses, a Trojan priest of Apollo, mentioned in the Iliad. When Lyrnessus was taken by the Greeks, in the distribution of the spoils she fell to Agamemnon. On his refusal to give her up to her father, who offered a rich ransom, Apollo sent his arrows into the Grecian camp in answer to the prayers of his priest, spreading a pestilence among the soldiers. Agamemnon was then forced to surrender his captive, but to till her place seized upon Brisei's, who had fallen to Achilles. Hence arose the quarrel between these two warriors which prolonged the Trojan war, and with which the story of the Iliad opens.


Chrysippus, a Greek philosopher of the Stoic school, born at Soli, in Cilicia, in 280 B. C, died in 207. It appears that he went to Athens after having lost a large fortune, and became a pupil of the Stoic Cleanthes, perhaps of Zeno himself, but at the same time diligently studied the arguments of the Skeptics against the Stoic doctrines. His acuteness in argument obtained for him the designation of "the sword for the knots of academicians." In his philosophical system he followed closely in the steps of his master, whose doctrines he seems to have made popular. It is stated that he was the author of 700 works. Only a few fragments of them have been preserved. The most elaborate essays upon Chrysippus and his philosophy are those of Baguet, De Chrysippi Vita, Doctrina, et Reliquils (Louvain, 1822), and F. C. Petersen, Philosophice Chrysippi Fundamenta (Hamburg and Altona, 1827).


Chrysolite (Gr.Chrysolite 0400274 gold, andChrysolite 0400275 stone; so named from its color), a common constituent of some eruptive rocks, and also occurring in or among inetamorphic rocks, with talcose schist, hypersthene rocks, and serpentine; or as a rock formation; also a constituent of many meteorites. The eruptive rocks, basalt and basaltic lava, consist of chrysolite (the variety olivine), along with labradorite or other feldspar, and augite. It is essentially a silicate of magnesia, with from 6 to 8 per cent, of protoxide of iron.