Chupra, a town of Bengal, capital of the district of Sarun, British India, situated at the junction of the Ganges and the Gogari, 32 m. 1ST. W. of Patna, and 330 m. N. W. of Calcutta; pop. about 30,000. It has a considerable trade in cotton, sugar, and saltpetre, with towns on the rivers. With the exception of the places of worship and the dwellings of the wealthy native merchants, the houses are built of mud, with tiled roofs. The town has little breadth, but extends a mile along the river. It is only a few feet above the level of the Ganges, which is here navigable during the rains, but inaccessible from October to July.
Chuquisaca. I. A department of Bolivia, between lat. 17° and 21° 25' S., and lon. 62° and 67° W., bounded N. by the departments of Cochabamba and Santa Cruz, E. by Santa Cruz, S. by Tarija and Potosi, and W. by Oruro; area, 72,793 sq. m.; pop. 219,788. The surface is mountainous and in portions arid, but the valleys are noted for fertility and are generally well cultivated, yielding large crops of corn, potatoes, and clover. It is divided into the provinces of Chuquisaca, Cinti, Tomina, and Yamparaes. The province of Chuquisaca is the most northerly and most elevated part of the department, and contains numerous and rich mines of gold and silver. II. The capital of the department and of Bolivia, called more generally Sucre. (See Sucre.)
Churchill, a W. central county of Nevada; area, 5,800 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 196, of whom 16 were Chinese. Carson, Humboldt, and Walker rivers water portions of the county. Near the centre is a depressed basin, in which lie the "sinks" or lakes of Carson and Humboldt rivers. In this basin are found salt, bicarbonate of soda, and other like substances. Much of the surface is mountainous. The arable land along the streams amounts to about 50,000 acres; the grazing lands are more extensive. There is also some land that might be made productive by irrigation, but the greater part is unfit for agriculture. The Central Pacific railroad passes through the N. W. part. Gold and silver are found. There is one quartz mill for the production of gold, with 10 stamps and 3 arastras. The chief productions in 1870 were 559 tons of hay, 7,145 bushels of barley, and 2,224 lbs. of wool. There were 130 horses, 137 milch cows, 741 other cattle, and 772 swine. Capital, Stillwater.
Chyme (Gr. sap, moisture), a term formerly applied to the semi-fluid mass of the food which has undergone digestion in the stomach, and is about to pass into the small intestine. It is now known that the food in this condition is simply a mixture of various substances, some of which have undergone complete or partial digestion by the gastric juice, while others are still unaltered, and require the action of other secretions before their digestion will be accomplished. The term chyme, therefore, does not represent any definite substance, and is accordingly seldom employed by physiologists at the present day.