Cinnamon Stone

Cinnamon Stone, a variety of garnet of a cinnamon brown shade. It is found at numerous localities in the metamorphic rocks in this and other countries. That brought from Ceylon is used in jewelry. (See Garnet.)

Cinque Ports

Cinque Ports, the five English channel ports of Hastings, Romney, Hythe, Dover, and Sandwich, on the S. E. coast of England, to which were afterward added the towns of Winchelsea and Rye. These ports, lying opposite to France, received peculiar privileges in the early days of English history, on condition of providing in time of war a certain number of ships at their own expense. According to Camden, the first warden was appointed by William the Conqueror; but their charters are traced to the times of Edward the Confessor. They are governed by an officer called the lord warden of the cinque ports. Formerly each of them sent two members to parliament, under the title of barons of the cinque ports; but since 1831 this privilege has been restricted to Hastings, Dover, and Sandwich. The duke of Wellington was lord warden of the cinque ports, and died at the official residence, Waimer castle.


Ciotat, La, a seaport town of France, in the department of Bouche-du-Rhone, on the rail-wav from Marseilles to Toulon, 14 m. S, E. of Marseilles; pop. in 1866,10,017. The port is accessible to vessels of 300 tons. It has a large parish church, a fine public promenade, a steam engine factory, considerable ship building, and an extensive coasting trade.

Circensian Games

Circensian Games, the various combats and contests exhibited in the Roman circus, said to have been first instituted by Romulus for the purpose of attracting the Sabines to his new town. A part of them were abolished by Constantino, others by the Goths; but the chariot races continued at Constantinople till the siege of that city by the Venetians in 1204.


Circhlvavigation. Any voyage around the world is properly so called; but as modern commerce encircles every sea, the term is confined to continuous voyages around the globe for some specific purpose, as for survey, discovery, or other scientific object. The following list comprises the principal circumnavigators, with the date of the commencement of each voyage: Magalhaens, 1519; Mendana, 1567; Drake, 1577; Cavendish, 1586 and 1591; Queiros, 1605; Le Maire, 1615; Tasman, 1642; Dampier, 1679; Roger and Cooke, 1708; Roggeween, 1721; Anson, 1740; Byron, 1764; Wallis and Carteret, 1766; Bougainville, 1766; James Cook, 1768, 1772, and 1776; Krusen-stern, 1803; Kotzebue, 1823; King and Fitz-roy, 1826; Belcher, 1836; Dumont d'Urville, 1837; Wilkes, 1838. Travellers and tourists at the present day very frequently make entire circumnavigations of the globe, starting from any point in Europe or America, and availing themselves of the various established lines of communication.


Circleyille, a city, capital of Pickaway co., Ohio, on the left bank of the Scioto river, and on the Ohio canal, which here crosses the river by a handsome aqueduct, 25 m. S. of Columbus; pop. in 1870, 5,407. It occupies the site of an aboriginal fortification of circular form, from which its name is derived. The surrounding country is rich and highly cultivated. The Cincinnati and Muskingum Valley railroad passes through it. It contains numerous mills and factories, and three weekly newspapers. There are 18 schools, of which 2 are high schools, 19 teachers, and 728 male and 688 female pupils in attendance.