Circuits (Lat. circvitus, from circumire, to go around), the periodical progress of the several judges of the superior courts of the common law in England and Wales through the several counties for the purpose of administering justice. The term is also applied to the several divisions of the kingdom which are made for the purposes of these visits, and through each of which one of the judges will go in order to hold courts twice or more each year in every county. The United States is also divided into circuits similarly, and the justices of the supreme court and circuit judges go upon the circuits periodically in like manner. There are like divisions of the several states for judicial purposes, and in some these are called circuits, in others not. (See Colet.)

Circular Measure

Circular Measure, a measure of angles produced by dividing the circumference of a circle, with its centre at the vertex of the angle, into 3G0 equal parts called degrees. Each degree is also divided into 00 minutes, and each minute into GO seconds. Circular minutes and seconds are marked by accents (' and" ), while measures of time of the same name are marked m. and s.

Circulating Medium

Circulating Medium. See Money.


Cirencester (colloquially called Ciceter), a market town and parliamentary borough of Gloucestershire, England, on the river Churn, and on the Cheltenham branch of the Great Western railway, 15 m. E. S. E. of Gloucester, and 95 m. by rail N. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 7,681. It is one of the greatest marts in England for wool. It has a fine old church, which has been restored at a cost of £12,000, and a free grammar school founded under Henry VII. Near the town is a noted agricultural college. It occupies the site of a Roman station called by Ptolemy Corinium, bv Richard of Cirencester Corinum, and by Antoninus Durocornovium.

Cisalpine Republic

Cisalpine Republic, a commonwealth founded by Bonaparte in Italy in 1797, consisting of the Cispadane and Transpadane republics, which he had previously established. It embraced Austrian Lombardy, including Mantua, the Venetian districts of Bergamo, Brescia, and Cremona, Verona and Rovigo, the duchy of Modena, the principalities of Massa and Carrara, with the three legations of Bologna, Fer-rara, and Ravenna, besides a part of the Gri-sons. It was divided into ten departments, with Milan as the capital. Austria acknowledged its existence by the treaty of Campo For-mio. It followed the destinies of the French in Italy. On their defeat in 1798 the republic was abolished, and reestablished in 1800, after the victory of Marengo. Austria was again forced to acknowledge this independent state on the conclusion of the peace of Luneville (1801). Instead of Cisalpine, it was called (1802) the Italian republic, and under the empire it became the kingdom of Italy.

Cisleithania, Or Cisteithan Austria

Cisleithania, Or Cisteithan Austria, a name which since 1867 is frequently (but not officially) applied to that part of the Austro-IIunga-rian monarchy which is represented in the Reichsrath of Vienna. It embraces the crown-lands formerly belonging to the German confederation, Dalmatia, Galicia, and Bukowina. The name is derived from the little river Leitha, which separates Lower Austria from Hungary, and thus forms part of the frontier. It contains a little less than one half the area and about four sevenths of the population of the monarchy.