Civita Castellana, a fortified town of Italy, in the province and 25 m. N. of Rome, upon an elevated plateau, nearly surrounded by ravines; pop. about 3,500. The Maggiore and the Treja unite just below the town, and fall into the Tiber 5 m. below. The cathedral is inscribed with the date 1210. The citadel is built upon the isthmus which connects the town with the higher ground. The position is one of great military strength. It was the site of the ancient Falerii or Falerium, the walls of which are still in a state of excellent preservation, and are the best specimen of Roman fortification extant. (See Falerii.) The French under Macdonald here achieved a victory over the Neapolitans under Mack, Dec. 4, 1798.
Civita Di Penne (anc. Pinna Vestina), a town of Italy, in the province of Teramo, situated at the foot of the Apennines, 14 m. W. of Pescara; pop. about 5,000. It was the chief city of the Vestini, and distinguished for the constancy with which it remained faithful to Rome, and resisted the overtures of the Italian allies in the social war.
Clackmannanshire, an E. and the smallest county of Scotland, bounded S. and S. W. by the river Forth; area, 46 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 23,742. Its N. part is occupied by the Ochil hills, between which and the rich alluvial valley of the Forth the surface is somewhat diversified, though its general aspect is level. The Devon and the Black Devon, also called the North and South Devon, are the only considerable streams. Agriculture is in a very flourishing state. Coal is largely produced, and there are many other minerals. The chief manufactures are of woollen shawls, plaids, and blankets. There are several large breweries and distilleries, glass works, brick works, potteries, and a number of iron works. Alloa and Clackmannan, the county seat, are the principal towns. Communication is afforded by the Scottish Central, the Edinburgh and Glasgow, and the Stirling and Dunfermline railways.
Clairfait. See Clerfayt.
Clande Francois Xavier Millot, a French ecclesiastic, born at Ornans, Franche-Comte, March 5, 1726, died in Paris, March 21, 1785. He entered the society of Jesus, and became professor of rhetoric at their college in Lyons; but his relation with them was brought to a close by their objections against his eulogy of Montesquieu. He then devoted himself to the preparation of historical works for schools, which obtained for him in 1768 the chair of history at the college of nobles in Parma. In 1777 he became a member of the French academy, and in 1778 preceptor of the duke d'En-ghien. His works on French, English, and general history were united under the title of CEuvres de l'dbbe Millot (15 vols., 1800; 2d ed., 12 vols. 8vo, 1819).