Coniiop Thirlwall, an English historian, born at Stepney, Middlesex, Feb. 11, 1797, died July 27, 1875. He was educated at Cambridge, was tutor, Craven scholar, Bell's scholar, and senior chancellor's medallist, received the degree of master in 1821, and became a fellow, He was called to the bar in 1825, but in 1828 entered the church, and became rector of Kirby-under-Dale, Yorkshire. In 1840 he was created bishop of St. Davids, which office he resigned in June, 1874. With J. C. Hare he translated the first two volumes of Niebuhr's "Historyof Rome" (1828), and he contributed to Lardner's " Cabinet Cyclopaedia" a history of Greece (1835 et seq.), afterward enlarged (8 vols., 1845-'52). He published a speech delivered in the house of lords in 1869 on the Irish church, and several sermons. His "Literary and Theological Remains" were edited by Canon Perowne (3 vols., London, 1875-'6).
Conradns Leemans, a Dutch archaeologist, born at Zalt Boemel, Gelderland, April 28, 1809. He studied theology and archaeology at the university of Leyden, and in 1839 became director of the museum of that city. In 1859 he was commissioned by government to establish at Leyden a national ethnographic museum, of which he has the direction, and to which was added Siebold's Japanese collection. He has published a critical edition of the Hieroglyphica of Horapollo (Leyden, 1835), Description raisonnee des monuments egyptiens du musee a Leyde (1840), Papyri Graeci Musei Lugduno-Bataxi (vol. i., 1843), and several other works upon Egyptian, Greek, and Roman antiquities. He has also published a description of the Asiatic and American antiquities in the museum of Leyden (1842). His most important work is Aegyptiscae monumental van het museum van oudheden te Leyden (23 parts, 1835-'65).
Consistory, in the Roman Catholic church, the college of cardinals, assembled in session. There are three kinds of consistories: the public, secret, and semi-secret. The first is held with great pomp and ceremony, the pope presiding in full pontificals. None but cardinals are present at the deliberations of the second. Consistorial advocates are lawyers admitted to plead on matters treated of in the consistory, e. g., the canonization of saints; and they enjoy many privileges and emoluments. - In English law, the court held by each bishop for the trial and disposal of all ecclesiastical causes arising in his diocese is called a consistory. In some of the reformed churches the consistory is an ecclesiastical tribunal, corresponding to a church session in the Dutch church, and in others to a presbytery.
Conspiracy, in criminal law, a combination by two or more persons to do an unlawful act, or to do something not in itself unlawful by criminal or unlawful means. Many things not punishable when done or contemplated by a single individual, become so when several confederate for the purpose; as in case of a combination to destroy one's reputation by slander, to cheat by false warranties, etc. To render the offence complete, it is not necessary that the purpose should be accomplished, or even that any overt act be done in pursuance of the conspiracy; the offence consisting in the unlawful agreement, and not in the acts which follow it.