See Medici, vol. xi., p. 343.
Constance Aubert. See Abrantes.
Constant In Petrovitch Kaufmann, a Russian general, born in the Baltic provinces about 1817. He is of humble origin, but early acquired distinction as a military engineer, and served for some time as chief of staff in the Caucasus. At a later period he held a post in the ministry of war, and cooperated in the thorough reform of the army. In 1864 he was appointed governor general of the military division of Wilna, including Lithuania, Livonia, and Courland; and in 1867 of the newly established division of Turkistan, which post he continued to hold in 1874 with the rank of lieutenant general. The progress of Russia in central Asia is mainly due to his efforts. In 1873 he conducted the successful campaign in Khiva, which virtually placed that territory under Russian control by the treaty of peace which he signed with the khan on Aug. 25.
Constantin Hering, an American physician, born at Oschatz, Saxony, Jan. 1, 1800. He studied medicine in Leipsic, Dresden, and elsewhere in Germany, and in 1826 received the degree of doctor of medicine, surgery, and obstetrics. Subsequently he was sent on a scientific expedition to Dutch Guiana. In 1834 he settled in Philadelphia, where he has since for the most part resided. He has been connected with several medical reviews and journals of the homoeopathic school, and is the author of a number of works devoted to the therapeutical reform commenced by Hahnemann, including "Rise and Progress of Homoeopathy" (Philadelphia, 1834), which has been translated into several languages; "The Domestic Physician" (6th ed., Philadelphia, 1858); "American Drug Provings" (vol. i., Leipsic, 1853), etc. He has given much attention to cures for the bites of venomous reptiles and mad dogs. In 1874 he was preparing for publication a collection of his medical essays.
Constantin Nikolayevlteh Batushkoff, a Russian poet, born at Vologda, May 29, 1787, died there, July 29, 1855. He was educated at St. Petersburg, took part in the campaign against Finland and in the French wars of 1813-'14, was some time librarian in the public library of St. Petersburg, and was subsequently attached to the foreign office at home, and to the Russian embassy at Naples. He wrote in prose on Russian literature, and translated Schiller's "Bride of Messina" into Russian. He lost his mind in 1818. A complete edition of his poems appeared at St. Petersburg in 1834, and in Smirdin's collection of classic Russian poets.
Constantine, the name of about thirteen emperors, of whom two ruled the whole Roman empire, the others only that of the East. There is much confusion in regard to the order of these emperors, some historians omitting several of them, and others adding to their number. The most conspicuous of them are noticed in the following articles; for the reigns of others see Byzantine Empire.