Cowhage, Or Cow-Itch

Cowhage, Or Cow-Itch (mucuna pruriens; called also dolichos, stizo-lobium, and negretia pruriens), a perennial climbing leguminous plant, which grows in the West Indies and other parts of tropical America. Its pod is imported for the sake of its stiff bristly hairs, which are used in medicine. They are sharp, penetrating spiculae, which produce an intense itching sensation when handled. In the West Indies they were long since found to possess valuable qualities as a vermifuge, probably by penetrating and thus destroying the worms. They were consequently adopted in medical practice, and introduced into the pharmacopoeias, but are now little used. The medicine is prepared by dipping the pods in molasses and scraping the hairs into this, until a mixture is obtained as thick as honey. Cowhage has also been applied as an external irritant by making it into an ointment with lard.




Cowl (Sax. cuhle; Lat. cucullus), a sort of hood, originally worn by all classes, and still retained by certain orders of monks. It consists of a conical covering for the head, attached to the robe or cloak, and sometimes made to draw over the shoulders also. According to Mabillon, it was at first the same as the scapular. The Benedictines and Bernar-dines have two sorts, one black for ordinary occasions, and another white and very large for days of ceremony. The proper shape of the cowl has been in the Franciscan order the subject of long and bitter dissensions.

Cowley, A S. E. County Of Kansas

A S. E. County Of Kansas Cowley, bordering on the Indian territory, intersected by the Arkansas river, and watered by Rock, Grouse, and Suicide creeks; area, 804 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,175. The chief productions in 1870 were 8,580 bushels of wheat, 2,380 of rye, 38,-720 of Indian corn, 10,200 of oats, 3,400 of potatoes, 1,786 tons of hay, and 5,686 lbs. of wool. There were 791 horses, 819 milch cows, 1,099 other cattle, 1,130 sheep, and 234 swine. Capital, Winfield.


Cowlitz, a S. W. county of Washington territory, separated on the S. W. from Oregon by the Columbia river, and intersected by the Catama and Minter rivers, and the Cowlitz and its tributaries; area, 460 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 730. The W. part is mountainous; the soil is fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 12,933 bushels of oats, 4,411 of peas and beans, 6,095 of potatoes, 1,425 tons of hay, and 14,075 lbs. of butter. Value of live stock, $45,499. Capital, Freeport.


See Wolf.

Crab Apple

See Apple.

Crab Stones, Or Crabs Eyes (Lapilli Cancro-Rum)

Crab Stones, Or Crabs' Eyes (Lapilli Cancro-Rum), concretions found in the stomach of the European crawfish. They are somewhat hemispherical in shape, of a laminated texture, and vary from 1 to 12 grains in weight. They consist of carbonate and phosphate of lime, with animal matter. They have been used, when ground and levigated, in the same dose and for the same purposes as prepared chalk, over which they possess no distinct advantages, and have gone out of use. (See Chalk).