Craven, a S. E. county of North Carolina; area estimated at 1,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 20,516, of whom 12,116 were colored. It borders on Pamlico sound, and is intersected by the Neuse river, navigable throughout the county. The surface is low, swampy, and in great part covered with pine forests, the turpentine and lumber procured from which are among the chief articles of export. The Atlantic and North Carolina railroad traverses it. The chief productions in 1870 were 3,310 bushels of wheat, 241,034 of Indian corn, 112,217 of sweet potatoes, 3,809 bales of cotton, and 55,386 lbs. of rice. There were 897 horses, 2,484 milch cows, 5,810 other cattle, 4,203 sheep, and 15,431 swine; 2 flour and 8 saw mills, 2 manufactories of agricultural implements, and 5 of tar and turpentine. Capital, New Berne.
Crawfordsville, a city and the capital of Montgomery co., Indiana, 43 m. N. W. of Indianapolis; pop. in 1870, 3,701. It is finely situated in a fertile and undulating region on the banks of Sugar creek. It is the seat of Wabash college (Presbyterian), which in 1871 had 10 instructors, 226 students, of whom 138 were in the preparatory department, and a library of 12,000 volumes. There are two weekly newspapers and several manufactories. The Indianapolis, Bloomington, and Western, and the Louisville, New Albany, and Chicago railroads pass through it.
Creatine (Gr. , flesh), a neutral crystallizable substance, one of the normal ingredients of the urine of man and animals; so called because it is derived from the muscular flesh, in which also it exists in appreciable quantity. Creatine is composed of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen. It crystallizes in rectangular prisms. It is soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, but not at all in ether. It exists in the urine, in the human species, in the average proportion of about 1.25 part in 1,000, and in the muscles in the proportion of 0.67 part in 1,000. It is regarded as one of the products of the physiological disintegration or waste of the muscular tissue, from which it is absorbed by the blood, carried by the circulation to the kidneys, and thence eliminated from the body as an ingredient of the urine.
Creditor, a town of Devonshire, England, on the Creedy river, 7 1/2 m. N. W. of Exeter; pop. in 1871, 6,565. Besides the parish church, an elegant Gothic structure with a beautiful altarpiece, there are several chapels for dissenters, and many schools, including a free grammar school founded by Edward VI. Flour mills and an extensive flax mill are near the town, but the once flourishing manufactures of serge and woollen have greatly declined.
Crefeld (Ger. Krefeld), a town of Rhenish Prussia, the principal seat of silk and velvet manufacture in Prussia, connected by railway with Cologne and Dusseldorf, 12 m. N. W. of the latter city; pop. in 1871, 57,128. Its most important public edifices are a Roman Catholic church, two Protestant churches, a synagogue, an orphan asylum, and a deaf and dumb institution. The silk manufacture was introduced in the 17th century by a colony of Huguenot refugees. It employs about 6,000 persons in the town and its vicinity; and the annual products are estimated at $7,500,000. In 1871 the exports to the United States amounted to about $2,256,000. There are also manufactories of woollen, cotton, and linen fabrics, potteries, tanneries, and distilleries. It was formerly a place of considerable strength, and its walls are still standing.