Csongrad. I. A County Of Hungary

Csongrad. I. A County Of Hungary, in the circle beyond the Theiss, intersected by that river and bounded S. E. by the Maros; area, 1,280 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 207,585, principally Magyars and Roman Catholics. The county is flat, and the soil very fertile, producing wheat, maize, hemp, tobacco, and fruits. There is. excellent pasture for horses, cattle, sheep, and swine, which are raised in great numbers. Besides the capital, Szegedin, Vasarhely and Szentes are the largest places. II. A market town, formerly capital of the county, 31 m. N. of Szegedin, on the railway to Pesth, and on the right bank of the Theiss; pop. in 1870, 17,356. It contains the ruins of an ancient castle.


See Comparative Anatomy, vol. v., p. 183.


Ctesibius, a native of Alexandria, celebrated for his mechanical inventions, flourished in the latter half of the 3d century B. C, or, according to AthenaBus, a century later. He is said to have been the first to apply the elastic force of air as moving power. He invented numerous machines, including a clepsydra or water clock, and a hydraulic organ.


Cubit (Lat. cubitus, the elbow), an ancient measure, taken from the human arm as measured from the elbow to the end of the middle finger. Its length was in practice somewhat indefinite and varied among different nations. According to the most recent investigations, the Roman cubit was 17 1/2 inches, and the Hebrew cubit less than 22 in., the different measurements varying from 20.24 to 21.888 in. The measurements of the Egyptian cubit vary from 20.472 to 20.748 in.; that on the Nilo-meter at Elephantine is 20.625 in.

Cucking Stool

Cucking Stool, an instrument formerly used in Great Britain for the punishment of persons whose conduct made them specially obnoxious to the public. It consisted of a stool or chair in which the offender was placed in front of his own dopr, and subjected to the insults and peltings of the mob. Extortionate or dishonest brewers and bakers were sometimes compelled to submit to this punishment, and for common scolds the chair was attached to the end of a long beam, by means of which the offender was ducked under water; hence the instrument came to be designated ducking stool. It was also sometimes called tum-brill, trebucket, and castigatory. Scolding wives continued to be punished in this manner in England up to the beginning of the present century.


Cudbear, a dyestuff prepared from several lichens, but principally from lecanora tartarea, which also furnishes the litmus cakes of the Dutch and the archil paste of the English. It is obtained from the lichens in the same manner as these dyes, but toward the end of the process it is dried in the air and pulverized. The name is a corruption of Cuthbert, from Dr. Cuthbert Gordon, who patented the mode of preparation. It is used, like archil, for giving to woollens and silks a great variety of colors, but has no affinity for cotton.

Lecanora tartarea.

Lecanora tartarea.