Cullodeff House

Cullodeff House, a family seat in Inverness-shire, Scotland, on Drummossie moor, 4 m. E. N. E. of Inverness, which gave its name to the battle that ended the career of the pretender in the rebellion of 1745, fought April 16, 1746. The English troops were led by the duke of Cumberland. The prince's army, commanded by Charles Edward in person, was almost destitute of artillery, in which arm the enemy were very powerful. The wild, undisciplined courage of the highlanders was vainly opposed to the discipline and cannon of the regulars. After a desperate attack and great carnage on both sides, the English troops stood firm, and the highlanders, unsupported and unofficered, broke and fled in all directions.

Culm, Or Rulm (Polish, Chelmno)

Culm, Or Rulm (Polish, Chelmno), a city of Prussia, in the province of "West Prussia, situated in a very fertile region, near the Vistula, 34 m. S. W. of Marienwerder; pop. in 1871, 8,455. It was founded about 1230 by the Teutonic knights, who divided Prussia into four dioceses, of which Culm with its district was one. It has a Catholic gymnasium, a cadet institution, an episcopal seminary, and considerable trade in corn. It was under Polish sovereignty from 1466 to 1772, when it was given to Prussia by the first partition of Poland. The inhabitants, of German origin, had their chartered city rights, copied from those of Magdeburg, collected and revised as early as 1394, which was ever recognized in old Prussia under the name of Kulmer Handfeste, or Jus Gulmense.

Culna, Or Khalana

Culna, Or Khalana, a town of British India, in the district of Burdwan, Bengal, on the Hoogly, 48 m. N. by W. of Calcutta; pop. about 40,000. It is a station for steamers plying between Calcutta and the upper provinces, and has considerable trade in rice, grain, silk, and cotton. It has a flourishing school and mission of the Free church of Scotland.

Culpeper

Culpeper, a N. county of Virginia, bordered S. by Rapidan river, N. E. by the N. branch of the Rappahannock, and drained in the N. part by Hazel river; area, 673 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,227, of whom 6,169 were colored. The surface is greatly diversified by hills and valleys, and the soil very productive. The Rappahannock and Hazel rivers are here navigable, the latter for small boats only. There are some mineral springs, but they are yet very little known. Indian corn, wheat, oats, and wool are the staples. The Orange, Alexandria, and Manassas railroad traverses it. The chief productions in 1870 were 105,592 bushels of wheat, 361,654 of Indian corn, 78,568 of oats 16,644 of potatoes, 2,706 tons of hay, 83,974 lbs. of butter, and 39,603 of wool. There were 2,338 horses, 2,563 milch cows, 4,066 other cattle, 10,127 sheep, and 5,889 swine; 5 flour mills, and 1 sash and blind factory. Capital, Fairfax, or Culpeper Court House.

Cumberland Mountains

Cumberland Mountains, that portion of the Appalachian group which ranges along the S. W. border of Virginia and the S. E. of Kentucky, and thence passes across the state of Tennessee into the N. E. part of Alabama. It spreads over a width of about 50 m., parallel ridges alternating with longitudinal valleys. The ridges rarely exceed 2,000 ft. in height. They are rocky and little cultivated, but the valleys are fertile. These mountains lie west of the range of granite and metamorphic rocks which compose the mountains on the W. borders of North Carolina and the N. part of Georgia. They are upon the range of the great coal formation of the middle states, and essentially composed of the same groups of stratified rocks as those of the Alleghany mountains, Chestnut ridge, and Laurel hill in Pennsylvania. The Tennessee river and its branches drain the E. slopes until it crosses the range, flowing toward the Ohio, like the Cumberland, the sources of which are on the W. side.