Curzola, an island of Dalmatia, Austria, in the Adriatic, S. of Lesina, and separated from the mainland by a narrow strait; pop. 11,100. The capital, Curzola, has a Catholic high school; pop. 2,300. Near Curzola the Genoese under Doria, on Sept. 8, 1298, gained a great naval victory over the Venetians under Dandolo.


See Kustrin.

Cutch Gundava

Cutch Gundava, a N. E. province of Be-loochistan, bordering on Sinde and Afghanistan, and bounded W. by the Hala mountains, in which is the famous Bolan pass. It lies between lat. 27° 40' and 29° 50' N, and lon. 67° 20' and 69° 20' E.; length from N. to S. about 150 m., breadth 130 m.; area, about 10,000 sq. m.; pop. about 100,000. It consists mainly of a vast arid plain, little cultivated, but in some parts thickly peopled. The S. E. part is occupied by the desert of Shikarpoor, 40 m. in extent, the soil of which is hardened clay, almost destitute of vegetation. The climate is sultry, water is scarce, and the chief productions are bajra and Indian millet. There are some fertile tracts devoted to the cultivation of cotton, sugar, madder, and fruits. Capital, Gundava.

Cutty Stool

Cutty Stool, the stool of repentance, formerly employed in the Scottish kirk for offenders against the law of chastity. The criminal, having been deprived of church ordinances, and duly taken to task privately for his or her offence, was required to make a public acknowledgment of the sin prior to being restored to communion. The penance consisted in occupying the stool in face of the congregation, and being lectured by the minister. Sometimes the offender was clad in a white sheet, the stool being black, and placed conspicuously in an upper gallery. The custom has fallen into disuse.


Cuxhaven, a town of Germany, in the state and 58 m. W. of the city of Hamburg, situated on the mouth of the Elbe, on its left bank; pop. about 1,700. It contains sea baths, founded in 1815, a fine lighthouse, a well regulated pilot establishment, which has superseded the use of the Heligoland fishermen for the piloting of vessels into the Elbe, and a quarantine station. The inhabitants are mostly fishermen and pilots. There are regular lines of packets to London, Havre, and Rotterdam. In 1849 and 1850, during the first Schleswig-Holstein war, a portion of the German navy was stationed here.


See Alexander I. John.

Cyaxares I. And II

See Media.


Cyclamen, a genus of plants of the order pri-mulacecB, distinguished by a tuberous, orange-shaped root, heart-shaped leaves, flowers (appearing in autumn) of one petal divided into five oblong segments, and by the peculiar flower stalk, which after flowering twists into a spiral and turns over toward the ground, so that the seeds, ripening in this position, fall and produce new plants. The common cyclamen, C. Europceum, is very hardy, and flourishes in several countries of the European continent, especially in Italy, where it is called paneporcino, from the fondness of swine for the tuberous root. C. Persicum is a very ornamental species, and is a favorite garden plant in southern Europe.

Cyclamen Europaeum.

Cyclamen Europaeum.