Cynuria, in ancient times, a district of the Peloponnesus, on the gulf of Argolis, inhabited by a rude tribe of Ionians. They were a plundering race, and when attacked would retire to their mountain fastnesses. They were, however, subdued by the Argives at an early period, and about the middle of the 6th century B. 0. their country passed into the possession of Sparta. The city of Thyrea (now Astros), with the country around, formed part of this district.


Cypraea, a genus of marine shells of the class gasterpoda. See Cowry.


Cypselus, a tyrant of Corinth, son of AEe-tion. His mother was one of the Bacchiadoa, but so ill-favored that none of her own order would accept her in marriage, whereon she wedded AEetion. The Delphian pythoness having foretold that her child would prove formidable to the aristocratic party, the Bac-chiadae attempted to murder him; but his mother concealed him in a chest (Gr. iCypselus 0500354 Cypselus overthrew the power of the oligarchs, expelled them from the city, and reigned 30 years (655-625 B. C). Aristotle represents his rule as mild and popular, but according to Herodotus he was a cruel oppressor. He was succeeded by his son Periander.


Cyrenaics, a school of philosophers founded by Aristippus of Cyrenaica, a pupil of Socrates, about 380 B. C, who taught that enjoyment was the highest object, and that virtue consisted in the art of producing the highest possible amount of agreeable feelings, by living in moderate activity, in the enjoyment of art and literature, with the careful shunning of pain. They despised, like the Cynics, all speculative philosophy, but as a rule were not immoral, limiting their practice to a gay, moderate, and amiable enjoyment of life. Among these philosophers, Arete, the daughter of Aristippus, his grandson Aristippus Metrodidactus, and Hegesias were the most renowned. This school was succeeded, a century later, by the kindred philosophy of Epicurus.

Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace

Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace, a French navigator, born at sea, Nov. 7,1793. He early entered the navy, became captain in 1828, and commanded in two expeditions of circumnavigation, which he described in his Voyage au-tour du monde par les mers de l'Inde et de la Chine, execute sur la corvette de l'Etat la Favorite pendant les annees 1830, 1831 et 1832 (5 vols., Paris, 1833-9), and in his Campagne de circumnavigation de la fregate l'Artemise pendant les annees 1837, 1838, 1839 et 1840 (4 vols., 1845-8). He was made vice admiral in 1853, and retired in 1858.


Cyrus, a river of Asia. See Kite.

Cyrus Buckland

Cyrus Buckland, an American inventor, born at Manchester, Conn, Aug. 10, 1799. In 1828 he became a pattern maker at the Springfield armory, and subsequently was designer of machinery and tools for the manufacture of arms. At different periods he occupied the post of inspector in all the various departments of the armory, and is now master machinist. Among his many valuable improvements is a set of stocking machinery, comprising 14 machines for working the gunstock from the rough state to a finish. It has been introduced into Great Britain and Russia. Among his other inventions are machines for rifling muskets, cutting the thread of the screw on the inside of the barrel, and milling the breech screw so as to produce a perfect interchange, every screw fitting any barrel.