Cythera

See Cerigo.

Cyzicus

Cyzicus, one of the oldest and most powerful of the' Greek cities of Asia, situated on a small island in the Propontis, near the Mysian shore, said to have been founded by a Pelas-gic tribe, expelled from their homes by the AEolians. It was afterward subject alternately to Athens, Sparta, and Persia, and obtained its independence after the time of Alexander. In the wars which determined the fate of the kingdom of Syria it took part with Pergamus and the Romans against Antiochus. The heroism with which the Cyzicenes defended their city when it was besieged by Mithridates obtained for it the rank of a libera civitas. When Constantine created the new province of Hellespontus, he made Cyzicus the capital. It was partially destroyed by an earthquake in A. D. 443, and was captured and completely ruined by the Arabians in 675. The place is now overgrown with neglected orchards and vineyards, and a low sandy isthmus has been formed converting the island into a peninsula.

Czars Ivan

See Russia.

Czaslau

Czaslau, a town of Bohemia, 45 m. S. E. of Prague; pop. about 6,000. It has a church noted for its lofty spire, and containing the tomb of Ziska, the Hussite leader. The town also contains a high school and manufactories of copper and brass ware, beet sugar, and alcohol. It is memorable for a victory of Frederick the Great over the Austrians, May 17, 1742.

Czegled

Czegled, a market town of Hungary, in the county and 42 m. S. E. of the city of Pesth, on the Pesth and Szolnok railway; pop. in 1870, 22,216. It is situated in a fertile district, which produces much grain and some red wine. It has a Roman Catholic and a Calvinist church. The inhabitants are mostly Magyars and agriculturists. The proximity of Kecskemet, Szolnok, and the Theiss made Czegled conspicuous during the Hungarian war of 1848-9.

Czelarowsry

See Celakovsky.

D. D Boyd Andrew Kennedy Hutchison

D. D Boyd Andrew Kennedy Hutchison, a Scottish clergyman and essayist, born at Au-chinleck, Ayrshire, in November, 1825. He was educated at the university of Glasgow; became a minister of the established church of Scotland in 1851, and officiated successively in the parishes of Newton-on-Ayr, Kirkpatrick-Irongray in Galloway, St. Bernard's in Edinburgh, and at St. Andrews, where he still remains. His writings, which originally appeared in magazines, have been republished separately. They include " Recreations of a Country Parson " (two series, 1860 and 1861), " Leisure Hours in Town " (1862), " Graver Thoughts of a Country Parson " (1863)," Counsel and Comfort Spoken from a City Pulpit," " Autumn Holidays of a Country Parson," and " Present Day Thoughts" (1870).

D. D Browne Edward Harold

D. D Browne Edward Harold, an English bishop, born in 1811. He was educated at Cambridge, where he became fellow and tutor in 1835; was incumbent of St. James's, Exeter, in 1841; vice principal and professor of Hebrew at St. David's college, Lampeter, from 1843 to 1849; vicar of Kenwyn and prebendary of Exeter in 1853; Norrisian professor of divinity at Cambridge in 1854; and canon residentiary of Exeter cathedral in 1857. In 1864 he was consecrated bishop of Ely. He is the author of "An Exposition of the Thirty-Nine Articles" (1850; 9th ed., 1871), republished and edited by Bishop Williams of Connecticut. He has also published volumes of sermons, and was one of the contributors to "Aids to Faith," Smith's "Dictionary of the Bible," " The Speaker's Commentary," etc.