See Demonology.


Deventer, a fortified city of Holland, in the province of Overyssel, on the right bank of the Yssel, 8 m. N. of Zutphen; pop. in 1868, 18,-218. It has narrow streets, spacious market places, handsome public promenades, a large town house, a court house, a prison, a weigh-house, several churches, a synagogue, and various literary, educational, and benevolent institutions. It has an excellent harbor, a prosperous trade, and extensive manufactories of Turkey carpets, stockings, iron ware, etc. It exports annually about 600,000 lbs. of butter, and 350,000 Deventer cakes, for which it is celebrated. It was one of the Hanse towns, and in the 16th century ranked next after Amsterdam among the cities of the northern Netherlands.


See Essex, Earl of.

Devil's Advocate

See Advocatus Diaboli.

Devil's Bridge

Devil's Bridge, a remarkable stone bridge in the canton of Uri, Switzerland, near Andermatt, by which the road from Switzerland to Italy by the pass of St. Gothard crosses the Reuss. The original bridge was built by Abbot Gerold of Einsiedeln in 1118, and was partly destroyed by the French, Aug. 14, 1799. It was afterward restored, but is no longer in actual use. It spans the river at a height of about 80 ft., without a parapet. The bridge now in use, completed in 1830, is about 20 ft. higher than the old one, or 100 ft. above the river, with high parapets; its arch has a span of 25 ft. Near the bridge is a tunnel 180 ft. long, through which the road passes, called the Urnerloch, or hole of Uri.

Devil's Bridge.

Devil's Bridge.

Devil's Wall

Devil's Wall, a name given during the middle ages to the remains of some Roman fortifications designed to protect the settlements on the Rhine and the Danube against the inroads of the German tribes. These defences originally consisted of a row of palisades, in front of which extended a deep ditch. The emperor Probus strengthened them by the erection of a wall about 300 m. long, passing over rivers and mountains, and through valleys, and protected by towers placed at intervals. Portions of this wall are still distinguishable between Abensberg in Bavaria and Cologne on the Rhine. In some places the ruins are overgrown with oaks, in others they form elevated roads or pathways through dense forests.


Devise, the disposition of lands to take effect after the death of the devisor. It is a term of Norman origin, and signified at first any division of lands, marque de division ou partage de terres, from the Latin divido. The instrument by which lands are devised is called a will. The disposition of personal estate to take effect after the death of the person making it is in legal language a testament; but the common appellation, where both real and personal estate are included, is last will and testament. The Roman testa-mentum applied equally to the disposition of real or personal estate, and the same rules were observed in either case. But the mode of executing a will has been always more formal in England than was required for the validity of a testament. (See Will.)