Dulcamara

Dulcamara, the name under which the dried young branches of solanum dulcamara (bittersweet or woody nightshade) are used in medicine. Its virtues, which are supposed to depend partly at least upon the alkaloid solania, are entirely extracted by water, and it is generally given in decoction. It is slightly narcotic and diuretic, but is not largely used. It is given also in solid extract, fluid extract, and infusion. The dose of the decoction is about four tablespoonfuls; of the fluid extract, half a teaspoonful to a teaspoonful.

Dulcigno

Dulcigno (Turkish, Olgun; anc. Olcinium), a town of Albania, European Turkey, on the Adriatic, 18 m. W. S. W. of Scutari, and 6 or 7 m. N. W. of the river Bojana; pop. about 8,000. It is on an isolated hill forming a cape which is united to the mainland by an isthmus. It contains a strong castle, has about 1,000 houses, and is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop. It surrendered to the Romans at the commencement of the hostilities with Gentius, king of the Illyrians, in 167 B. C, and in consequence received the privilege of freedom and exemption from taxation. The Venetians suffered a great defeat here in 1718, their fleet and army being annihilated by a storm and the attack of the Turks. Its inhabitants were once known, under the name of Dulcignottes, as the most formidable pirates of the Adriatic. They now live mostly by agriculture.

Dulcimer

Dulcimer, an ancient musical instrument, resembling, if not identical with, the psaltery or nebel of the Jews. The modern dulcimer consists of a small box, in shape a triangle or a trapezium, containing a number of wire strings stretched over a bridge at each end, and struck with little iron rods or wooden sticks in the hands of the performer.

Dulse

See Algae.

Dulwich

Dulwich, a suburb of London, in Surrey, 4 1/2 m. S. S. E. of St. Paul's cathedral, and near Sydenham; pop. in 1871, 4,041. It is chiefly remarkable for its college, founded and endowed in 1619 by Edward Alleyn, a distinguished actor. The college originally consisted of a master, warden, 4 fellows, 6 poor brethren, 6 poor sisters, 12 scholars, and 30 out members. Its income from endowment in 1626 was £800, but through the rise in the value of the estates this has increased to £14,000. The college was reorganized by act of parliament in 1857, and some gross abuses were corrected. One fourth of the revenue is now devoted to the support of aged people, and the remainder to the educational department, to which boys are admitted on payment of a moderate fee. It supports 24 foundation scholars; and the master must always bear the name of Allen. It has a valuable picture gallery, mainly contributed by Sir Francis Bourgeois in 1810.

Dumbartonshire

Dumbartonshire, a W. county of Scotland, anciently called Lennox, consisting of two detached portions, the larger lying between Lochs Lomond and Long and the frith of Clyde, the smaller between the counties of Lanark and Stirling; area, including a portion of Loch Lomond, 320 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 58,839. The surface is mostly mountainous, and the soil, except in the lowlands, is poor. The best land, however, is highly cultivated, producing potatoes, grain, beans, and turnips. Large tracts are devoted to pasturage, and there are several nurseries for raising timber. The principal minerals are coal, ironstone, limestone, and slate. Capital, Dumbarton.