Erasmus Darwin, an English physiologist and poet, born at Elton, Nottinghamshire, Dec. 12, 1731, died at Derby, April 18, 1802. He studied at Cambridge, graduated at Edinburgh, and settled as a physician at Lichfield. The work by which he is best known is "The Botanic Garden," a poem in two books, the first explaining the economy of vegetation, the second personifying "the loves of the plants." Gnomes, sylphs, nymphs, and salamanders were adopted to give machinery to the poem. He next published "Zoonomia, or Laws of Organic Life," a curious physiological essay. In 1800 he published "Phytologia, or Philosophy of Agriculture and Gardening;" also "Letters on Female Education," addressed to his daughters. A poem entitled "The Temple of Nature" appeared after his death (1803). Darwin's writings were very popular in their day. Miss Seward published his memoirs in 1804.
Erath, a N. E. central county of Texas, watered by affluents of the Brazos river; area, 1,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,801, of whom 89 were colored. The surface is generally undulating, with some eminences on the S. and N. E. borders. The soil in the valleys is excellent; the uplands are less fertile, but afford good pasturage. Timber of various kinds covers about one third of the surface. The chief productions in 1870 were 9,931 bushels of wheat, 78,109 of Indian corn, 6,533 of oats, and 167 bales of cotton. There were 1,703 horses, 57,609 cattle, 2,312 sheep, and 7,935 swine. Capital, Stephensville.
Erato (Gr. the lovely), one of the nine muses, daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. In the theogony of Hesiod she holds the sixth place among them. She was the protectress of nuptial ceremonies, and the muse of erotic poetry. She disputed with Mercury the honor of having invented the lyre.
Erebus, one of the oldest gods of the Greeks and Romans, son of Chaos and Night. He was changed into a river, into which he had been precipitated for having assisted the Titans. The term Erebus was frequently applied to a portion of the pagan inferno, a dark and gloomy space beneath the earth, through which the souls of the just passed on their way to enjoy the eternal and delightful life of Elysium.
Ererardus Bogardus, a Dutch-American clergyman, horn in Holland, died Sept. 27, 1647. In 1638 he came to New Amsterdam (New York), and became the second minister there, residing in what is now Broad street. In 1638 he married Annetje, widow of Roelof Jansen, who had obtained a grant of a farm of 62 acres in what is now the heart of the city Of New York; this farm, long known as the "dominie's Bouwery," in time became vested in Trinity church, and forms the foundation of the wealth of that corporation. Dominie Bo-sardus had sharp disputes with the successive directors. Van Twiller, Kieft, and Stuyvesant, was complained of by his congregation, and in 1647 resigned his,charge, and sailed for Europe to answer to his ecclesiastical superiors in Holland. The vessel ran by mistake into Bristol channel, struck on a rock, was wrecked, and 80 persons, among whom were Bogardus and Kieft, were drowned, only 20 escaping.