See Moral Philosophy.
Etieime Clayiere, a banker of Geneva, born Jan. 27, 1735, died Dec. 8, 1793. Having established himself in Paris, he became acquainted with Mirabeau, Brissot, and other leaders of the revolutionary party, and was appointed minister of finance in March, 1792. As an opponent of the extreme measures of Robespierre, he fell with the Girondists, being arrested June 2, 1793, and to escape the guillotine stabbed himself to death, His wife poisoned herself two days afterward, lie wrote on financial subjects.
Etiemne Vacherot, a French philosopher, born in Langres, July 29, 1809. He studied at the normal school in Paris, and was director of studies there from 1837 to 1851, when he was suspended through ultramontane influence. In 1852 he was dismissed for refusing to take the oath to Napoleon III.; and for his treatise La democratic (1859) he underwent three months' imprisonment, and for this and his refusal to act as a member of the council of superior instruction was disfranchised till 1870. In 1871 he was elected a member of the national assembly. He succeeded Cousin in the academy. His works include Histoire critique de l'ecole d'Alexandrie, crowned by the academy (3 vols., 1846-51); La metaphysique et la science (2 vols., 1858; 2d ed., 3 vols., 1863); Essais de philosophic critique (1864); and La religion (1868).
Etiennc De Carheil, a Jesuit missionary among the Huron and Iroquois Indians in Canada. He first visited these tribes in 1668, obtained a complete mastery of their languages, and was regarded by the savages both as a saint and a man of genius. The date of his death is unknown, but he was still laboring with undiminished activity, though with little success, in 1721, when Charlevoix left Canada.
Etienne Dolet, a French scholar and printer, born in Orleans in 1509, burned as a heretic in Paris, Aug. 3, 1546. He was fond of classical studies, and one of the especial admirers of Cicero, and warmly defended this predilection against the sarcasms of Erasmus. He was rash and impetuous, which made him many enemies, who lost no opportunity of persecuting him. Having been often accused of cherishing heretical sentiments, he was at last adjudged an atheist by an ecclesiastical court at Paris, in consequence of an expression which he used in his translation of the Axiochus of Plato, which was not to be found in the original; and for this he was condemned.
Etienne Jnles Marey, a French physiologist, born in Beaune in 1830. lie took his medical degree in Paris in 1860, subsequently lectured on the circulation of the blood, and in 1867 succeeded Flourens as adjunct professor of natural history at the college de France. His principal works are: Tableau sommaire des appareils et experiences cardiographiques de MM. Chau-veau et Marey (Paris, 1863). and Lu moure-ment dans les fonctions de la vie (1867). His experimental researches on the movements of animals are also of erreat orisinalitv and ex-cellence. His latest book is La machine ani-male .- Locomotion terrestre et aerienne (Paris, 18731. of which the English translation ( "Animal Mechanism, a Treatise on Terrestrial and Aerial Locomotion," New York. 1874) forms of the "International Scientific Series".