Ferdinand Georg Waldmuller

Ferdinand Georg Waldmuller, a German painter, born in Vienna in 1793, died there, Aug. 23, 1865. He studied under Maurer and Sampi, painted portraits at Pesth, and afterward returned to Vienna. In 1820 he exhibited his "Peddlers of Turkish Pipes," followed by genre pictures relating to Austrian and Tyrolese peasantry and to children (1830'50). His works also include "A Rabbi teaching a Girl," "A Child learning to Walk," "A Family of Tyrolese Peasants," "A Family of Itinerant Beggars," "The Convalescent's first Walk," "The Village School," "A Village Wedding in Lower Austria," " Going Home from the Harvest," "A Child's Sorrow," and "A Child's Piety".

Ferdinand Hitzig

Ferdinand Hitzig, a German Biblical critic, born in Baden, June 23, 1807. He graduated at Gottingen in 1829, and in 1833 was called to Zurich as professor of theology, his lectures comprising the New Testament and the Semitic and other oriental languages. He has published Begriff der Kritik am Alten Testament (1831); Pes Propheten Jonas Orakel uber Moab (1831); translations of and commentaries upon Isaiah (1833), the Psalms (1835 et seq.), the twelve minor prophets (1838; 3d ed., 1863), Jeremiah (1841), Ezekiel (1847), Daniel (1850), and Canticles (1855). Among his other writings are : Die Erfindung des Alphabets (1840); Ueber Johannes Marcus und seine Schriften (1843); Urgeschichte und Mythologie der Phi-listaer (1845); Pie Grabschrift des Eschmu-nazar (1855); Geschichte des Volkes Israel (1896 et seq.); and Die Inschrift des Mesha (1870).

Ferdinand Pettrich

Ferdinand Pettrich, a German sculptor, born in Dresden in 1798, died in Rome, Feb. 14, 1872. He was a son of the sculptor Franz Pettrich (1770-1844), studied in Rome under Thorwaldsen, and in his youth spent some time in the United States and in Brazil. Among his best known works are "Belisarius," " Christ," and "Day and Night".

Ferdinando Gallida Bibbiena

Ferdinando Gallida Bibbiena, an Italian architect and painter, born in Bologna in 1657, died about 1743. His designs were of the most sumptuous character, and for many years the duke of Parma and the emperor Charles VI. of Germany employed him in painting decorations and architectural pieces, and in conducting triumphal processions, which were famous throughout Europe. To him the stage is indebted for the invention and decoration of movable scenery. He published several works on architecture and on the theory of perspective. - His father Giovanni Maria, owner of the Bibbiena estate in Tuscany, whence came the surname, his brother Francesco, and his son Antonio were all distinguished for a considerable degree of the same talent.

Ferdinando Paer

Ferdinando Paer, an Italian composer, born in Parma in 1771, died in Paris, May 3, 1839. He is said to have composed an opera at the age of 10. He produced several operas at Vienna, acted as chapelmaster at Dresden, was appointed imperial composer by Napoleon in 1806, and between 1818 and 1825 was director of the Italian opera in Paris. He was a prolific composer of operas, cantatas, overtures, etc, and his dramatic pieces abound in striking melodies and effective accompaniments. His chief operas are Camilla, Sargino, Achille, Leonora, Dido, Griselda, and Agnese.