Francisco Suarez

Francisco Suarez, a Spanish theologian, born in Granada, Jan. 5, 1548, died in Lisbon, Sept. 25, 1617. He early entered the order of Jesuits, and was successively professor at the universities of Alcala, Salamanca, Rome, and Coimbra. His Defensio Fidei, etc. (Coimbra, 1613), was in 1614 ordered by the parliament of Paris to be burned, because it claimed for the pope a coercive power over kings. In the same year and subsequently it was reprinted at Cologne. His complete works appeared at Lyons and Mentz (23 vols, fol, 1630 et seq.; new eds., Venice, 1740, and Besancon, 1856-'62). Francisco Noel prepared an abridged edition (2 vols, fol, Geneva, 1732; republished by J. P. Migne, Paris, 1858). The life of Sua-rez has been written in Latin by Deschamps (Perpignan, 1671), and in German by "Werner (Ratisbon, 1861 et seq.).

Francisens Hals

Francisens Hals, a Dutch painter, born at Mechlin in 1584, died in Haarlem, Aug. 20, 1666. He was inferior as a portrait painter only to Vandyke. He passed his whole life in the Netherlands, chiefly at Delft or Haarlem. He left a great number of paintings, and is one of the best representatives of that school of the Netherlands which made no effort to idealize, but only sought accurate representation.

Franciszek Dyonizy Kniaznin

Franciszek Dyonizy Kniaznin, a Polish poet, born in Vitebsk, Oct. 4, 1750, died at Kon-skawola, near Pulawy, Aug. 25, 1807. He studied at the Jesuits' college in Vitebsk, entered that order, and after its suppression repaired to Warsaw, where he eventually became secretary to Prince Adam Czartoryski. An unfortunate passion for the eldest daughter of his patron, and the tragic events which brought about the fall of his country, plunged him into melancholy, passing into derangement. His works, of which there are various collections, comprise songs, idyls, fables, several larger poems, and translations.

Franciszek Karpinski

Franciszek Karpinski, a Polish poet, born in the palatinate of Brzesc Litewski about 1760, died at Karpinczyn, in the palatinate of Lublin, in September, 1823. He was conspicuous in the literary circles of the Czartoryskis at Pu-lawy, and wrote various original works, including the tragedy Judyta, and translations. His fame rests chiefly on his idyls, and on his poetical translation of the Psalms. His "Works " (Dzieta) have been published in Warsaw, Breslau, and Leipsic.

Francois Barthelemy

Francois Barthelemy, marquis de, a French diplomatist, born at Aubagne, Oct. 20, 1747, died in Paris, April 3, 1830. He was educated by his uncle, Jean Jacques Barthelemy, and became prominent in the diplomatic service, especially at Basel, where in 1795 he negotiated the first treaties of peace of the republic with Spain, Prussia, and Hesse-Cassel. He was a member of the directory, and after the 18th Fructidor was transported with Pichegru to Guiana, whence he escaped to the United States and to England. He was among the first recalled by the first consul, who made him a senator, and afterward a count. He voted to make Bonaparte consul for life, and presided in 1814 over the senate which deposed the emperor, for which Louis XVIII. created him a peer. After the hundred days he was made a minister of state and marquis. His motion in 1819 for reducing the electoral vote became one of the principal sources of political agitation during the restoration.