Frauz Eduard Todleben

Frauz Eduard Todleben, a Russian military engineer, born in Mitau, Courland, May 20, 1818. He was educated at the school of engineers in St. Petersburg, and after being employed in that department he served in the Caucasus against Shamyl from 1848 to 1851, and against the Turks on the Danube in 1853-4. Ho displayed great genius in the defence of Sebastopol, and was wounded, June 20, 1855. Subsequently ho was employed in strengthening Nikolayev and Cronstadt. In 1860 he became chief of engineering in the war office, with the rank of general, and he is at the same time the adjunct of the grand duke Nicholas in the general direction of this service. His history of the defence of Sebastopol (St. Petersburg, 1864) has been translated into several languages, and reviewed in a volume by William Howard Russell (London, 1864).

Frederic Mistral

Frederic Mistral, a French poet, born at Maillane, near St. Remy, Provence, Sept. 8, 1830. He studied at Lyons and Avignon, where he graduated in jurisprudence, but devoted himself to poetry in his native village. His principal work is the pastoral Provencal epic Mireio (Mireille), with a French text (Avignon, 1859; enlarged ed., 1802; English translation by II. Crichton, London, 1808, and by Harriet W. Preston, Boston, 1872), for which he received in 18(51 an academical prize of 2,000 francs, and which has been set to music by Gounod as a comic opera. He published Calen-dan, a poem, in 1867. In September, 1868, great literary and social entertainments were given at St. Remy in honor of Provencal poetry, in which he took the most prominent part.

Frederick Baraga

Frederick Baraga, D. D., a Roman Catholic bishop and missionary among the North American Indians, born at Treffen, Carniola, June 29, 1797, died at Sault Ste. Marie, Jan. 19, 1868. He was of a noble family, was educated at the university of Vienna, was ordained a priest in September, 1823, came to America in December, 1830, and from that time till his death was connected with the Chippewa and Ottawa missions in Michigan. He was consecrated bishop of Marquette and Sault Ste. Marie in 1853. He was the author of a Chippewa grammar and dictionary (Detroit, 1849 and 1852), of several religious works in Chippewa, and of a small work in German on the " History, Character, and Habits of the North American Indians " (1837).

Frederick Barbarossa

Frederick Barbarossa. See Frederick I., emperor of Germany.

Frederick Beasley

Frederick Beasley, an American divine, born near Edenton, N. C, in 1777, died at Elizabeth-town, N. J., Nov. 2, 1845. In 1801 he was ordained deacon in the Episcopal church, and was successively rector in Albany, N. Y., and in Baltimore, Md. He was from 1813 to 1828 professor of moral philosophy in the university of Pennsylvania, and published in defence of the philosophy of Locke a "Search of Truth in the Science of the Human Mind " (1822). After retiring from the university he took charge of a church in Trenton, N. J., where he wrote an answer to the doctrinal views of Dr. Channing. From 1836 he lived in retirement at Elizabethtown.