Friedrich Gustav Klemm

Friedrich Gustav Klemm, a German historian, born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Nov. 12, 1802, died in Dresden, Aug. 26, 1869. He graduated at Jena in 1825, became in 1834 assistant, and in 1852 chief librarian at Dresden, and resigned in 1863. He pursued his historical studies with particular regard to the progress of civilization and humanity. His ethnographical, historical, and antiquarian collection was taken to Leipsic in 1871, for the central anthropological museum of that city. His principal works are: Die Geschichte von Baiern (3 vols., Dresden, 1828); AllgemeineCulturgeschichtederMensch-heit (10 vols., Leipsic, 1843-'52); Allgemeine Culturwissenschaft (2 vols., 1854-'5); Die Frauen (6 vols., Dresden, 1854-'8); and Vor funfzig Jahren (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1865).

Friedrich Hebbel

Friedrich Hebbel, a German lyric and dramatic poet, born at Wesselburen, Holstein, March 18, 1813, died in Vienna, Dec. 13, 1863. He was the son of a farmer, was educated at Heidelberg, and went to Hamburg, where in 1841 ho wrote his tragedy of Judith, which was immediately successful. He then visited Copenhagen, Paris, London, and Naples, and in 1846 settled in Vienna, where ho married the actress Christine Enghaus. Among his other dramas are Genoveva (1843), Maria Mag-dalena (1844), Der Diamant (1847), Herodes und Mariamne (1850), Julia (1851), Michel Angelo (1855), and Die Nibelungen (2 vols., 1862). A complete edition of his works was issued at Hamburg in 12 vols., 1865-8. They are characterized by boldness, vigor, and originality, with a predilection for the horrible.

Friedrich Heinrich Himmel

Friedrich Heinrich Himmel, a German composer, born at Treuenbrietzen, Prussia, Nov. 20, 1705, died in Berlin, June 8, 1814. He early attracted the notice of Frederick William II., who afforded him the means of pursuing his musical studies, and afterward appointed him royal chapelmaster. His chief opera was Semiramide, first performed in Naples in 1795. This work was said to contain the material of ten ordinary operas. He composed many cantatas and occasional pieces, and an immense number of pianoforte compositions and songs.

Friedrich Johann Joseph Ce-Lestinus Von Schwarzenberg

Friedrich Johann Joseph Ce-Lestinus Von Schwarzenberg, an Austrian cardinal, born in Vienna, April 6, 1809. He was made bishop of Salzburg Feb. 1, 1836, was proclaimed cardinal Jan. 24, 1842, and was promoted to the primatial see of Prague Dec. 13, 1849. At the beginning of the Vatican council he signed the petition to the pope, drawn up by Cardinal Rauscher, praying that the doctrine of pontifical infallibility should not be discussed in the council; he made a discourse against the opportuneness of a dogmatic definition, but afterward accepted the decision of the council.

Friedrich Julius Otto

Friedrich Julius Otto, a German chemist, born at Grossenhain, Saxony, Jan. 8, 1809, died in Brunswick, Jan. 13, 1870. He studied at Jena, and was subsequently employed at Brunswick and under Liebig in Giessen. In 1866 he became director of the polytechnic institute of Brunswick. He translated into German Graham's " Elements of Chemistry" (3 vols., Brunswick, 1840-'43), and in later editions made an independent work of it. Among his other works are: Lehrbuch der rationellen Praxis der landwirthschaftlichen Gewerbe (6th ed., 1865-7); Lehrbuch der Essigfabrihation (2d ed., 1857); Die Bierbrauerei, die Brannt-weiiibrennerei und die LiqueurfabriJcation (1865); and Anleitung zur Ausmittelung der Gifte (4th ed., enlarged by Robert Otto, 1870).