Friedrich Spangenberg, a Gorman painter, born in Gottingen in 1843, died while ascending Mt. Vesuvius, June 8, 1874. Ho studied in Munich, and became known by his picture of Genseric, king of the Vandals, leading the empress Eudoxia and her children into captivity after the sack of Pome. In conjunction with the Belgian painter Pauwel he executed at Weimar "The Triumph of the Union,"commemorating the close of the civil war in the United States. While in Rome he painted "A Young Ostrogoth entering into friendly Eolations with Citizens of Rome".
Friedrich Spiegel, a German orientalist, born at Kitzingen, near Wurzburg, July 11, 1820. After studying at Erlangen, Leipsie, and Bonn, and spending several years in travel, he became in 1849 professor of oriental languages at Erlangen. Besides editing several Persian works, he has published Einleitung in die traditionellen Schriften der Parsen (2 vols., Leipsie, 1856-'60); Die altpersischen Keilin-scliriften (Leipsic, 1862); Eranische Alter-thumshunde (2 vols., Leipsie, 1871-'3); and several grammars and minor treatises bearing on Iranian antiquities, religion, language, literature, and ethnology.
Friedrich Traugott Kutzing, a German naturalist, born at Ritteburg, Thuringia, Dec. 8, 1807. He studied in Halle, explored southern Europe, and became professor at Nordhausen. His principal works relate to the algae, including Tabulce Phycologicce (Nordhausen, 1845-'7l); and in his Grundzuge der philosophischen Bo-tanik (2 vols., Leipsic, 1851-2), he anticipated the doctrines of Darwin.
Friedrich Von Sallet, a German poet, born in Neisse, Silesia, April 20, 1812, died at Rei-chau, Feb. 21, 1843. He was descended from French Protestant refugees. After serving in the army, he published in 1830 a satirical novel on military life, and was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment, which the king reduced to two months. His principal work, Laienevangelium (Breslau, 1839; 6th ed., 1861), is a eulogy of pantheism. His complete works were published in 5 vols. (Breslau, 1845-'8; new ed., 1864).
Friedrich Wilhelm Barthold, a German historian, born in Berlin, Sept. 4, 1799, died Jan. 14, 1858. He studied history under Raumer, and was teacher at the Frederick's college of Konigsberg (1826-'31), and professor of history at the university of Greifswald (1831-58). His principal works are: Der Riomerzug Konig Heinrich's von Lutzelburg (2 vols., Konigsberg, 1830-'31); Geschichte des grossen deutschen Krieges ton Gustav Adolf's Tode ab (Stuttgart, 1841-'3); Geschichte der deutschen Stadte und des deutschen Burgerthums (4 vols., Leipsic, 1850-'52); and Geschichte der deutschen Han-sa (Leipsic, 1854).
Friedrich Wilhelm Buxhowdm, count von, a Russian general, born at Magnusdal, on Moen, Sept. 14, 1750, died at his estate of Lohde in Esthonia in 1811. He served for many years against the Turks, in 1789 was made general, and in the next year conducted with success the campaign against the Swedes. He commanded a division of the army in the wars against Poland, was governor of Warsaw from 1794 to 1796, and afterward military governor of St. Petersburg. Under Paul he was for a short time in disgrace and retired to Germany, but was restored to his offices upon the death of that czar. At Austerlitz he commanded the left wing of the Russians, and in 1808 led a successful expedition against the Swedes.